How to Write an Effective Essay

Learning to write an effective academic essay is one of the most important skills you will learn while attending college. As a student, there is a high probability that you will have to write a considerable number of essays. These essays will help you to improve your written communication skills and enable you to communicate ideas clearly and concisely. As you master the skills required to write effective essays, you will begin to create your best written work.
The first step in writing your academic essay is to choose your topic carefully. Research your topic and make yourself an expert on that topic by utilizing the internet, academic databases, and the library. A university or college library is an indispensable tool for academic essay writing because it contains specialized journals, indexes, and critical works not found in a public library (Hodges and Whitten). Once you have a good knowledge base, analyze the arguments and evidence in the information presented. Pick your best idea and develop a clear thesis which sums up the main point of your essay in a concise sentence to let the readers know where you are going. Now it is time to organize your ideas by using the information you have gathered to develop an outline. An outline should have your main ideas in an orderly sequence, which represents the way they are to be presented. Remember that while you are making your outline, it is best to avoid repetition of ideas.
Getting organized
Developing an outline is the way to help you stay on track of things as you write. Try to identify your main point and your conclusion. Keep in mind that a basic essay structure should have three parts: introduction, body, and conclusion. The introduction is the first paragraph of your paper. It often begins with a general statement about the topic, and ends with a specific statement of the main ideas of your paper. The information should grab the reader??™s attention, set up the issue, and lead into your thesis. The purpose of the introduction is to let the readers know what your topic is about, and to inform the readers about your point of view. The body of the paper should follow the introduction. The body of the paper consists of a number of paragraphs, which develop your ideas in detail. You should try to limit each paragraph to one main idea, and prove your points continually by using specific examples. It is also good to use transitional words to ensure the smooth flow of ideas from paragraph to paragraph. The conclusion is the last paragraph of your paper. Its purpose is to summarize your points, and restate the main idea of your paper.
College and schools are now extremely concerned about plagiarism, which is copying the work of another person and passing it off as your own. The ninth edition of Harbrace College Handbook points out that ???you must acknowledge all material quoted, paraphrased, or summarized from any work. If you fail to cite a source, whether deliberately or accidentally, you are guilty of plagiarism??? (Hodges and Whitten 457). Effective essay writing requires avoiding plagiarism; although an essay will not be original, you are expected to refer to writers in the field and include relevant quotations.
Revising your draft
An important part of writing an effective academic essay is to revise your first draft. It is recommended that you set aside your draft for a day or two before revising. This makes it easier to view your work objectively, and recognize any gaps or problems. Revising involves rethinking your ideas, refining your arguments, reorganizing paragraphs, and rewording sentences. You may need to develop your ideas in more detail, give more evidence to support your claims, and delete unnecessary ideas. Moreover, reading your paper out loud is also a good way to revise your first draft. Sometimes, this makes it easier to identify writing that sounds awkward or unclear.Proofreading
After you finish your revision, it is time to start proofreading your final draft. The purpose of proofreading is to look for careless errors of misspelled words, incorrect punctuation, and overlooked capitalizations. Errors are more difficult to spot on a computer screen than on paper. Therefore, if you type your paper on a computer, print out a copy before proofreading. Also, remember that spell checkers and grammar checkers do not always catch errors, so it is best not to rely too much on them.
There is no better way to write an essay that is organized, insightful, and appealing than through practice, and writing as many essays as you can. The more essays you write the better of a writer you will become. The process forces you to ask questions, find the sources to answer them, present your answers to readers, and defend your answers against detractors. You will most likely use these valuable skills in a professional career long after you leave college.


It is Lewis??™ transformation that is the focus of the drama.At the beginning of Cosi, Lewis is shy, unsure and not at all confident in himself, and for a main character this is extremely unusual and proves to be very enticing for the audience. But his transformation into a confident leader for the patients isn??™t the main focus of the play. The aspects of love and fidelity, Roy??™s captivating enthusiasm, and the treatment and views of the mentally ill are also key focus points in the play.Lewis shows the audience from the moment they meet him that he lacks confidence and is a very passive and shy character. His first line, ???don??™t know??™, followed closely by ???I thought you were going to help me??™, indicates to the audience how uncertain he is not only to be working in the asylum, but also within himself. Roy immediately picked up on this and too charge. He had such a strong passion towards the opera, Cosi Fan Tutte and rarely showed compassion towards the other patients, and especially Lewis, which initially proved very confronting and frightening for him. On instance of this is when Nick comes to help Lewis and even though Nick hasn??™t done much, receives praise from Roy, ???Finally a director!??™ and, ???Brilliant! ??¦. Are you listening Jerry??™. Not only by Roy taking charge, but also Doug lighting the fires and Cherry force feeding him, we can see the struggle Lewis is having.
Although, Lewis??™ major turn point is when Nick upsets Henry. Lewis is forced to either support Henry, or risk losing one of his actors. And not only does Lewis support Henry, but he also physically stands up to Henry, showing for the first time his strength and leadership in order to convince Henry to stay.
Lewis then follows through with this slight character development when he chooses the Opera and the patients over Lucy and Nick??™s moratorium meeting. This is very significant and gives his character a twist for the audience in that not only is he standing up for himself and showing confidence, but he is finally doing what he wants and believes in by choosing the opera, love and the patients instead of choosing Lucy and politics and following his friends.

How to Write a Scholarship Letter by Laura Difiore Found in Scholarship Packet

Top Ten Mistakes Made on Scholarship Applications
By Laura DiFiore1. Forget to include your name and/or address! You would be surprised how many students do not include their name or address on an application!2. Submit an incomplete application. Make sure you include all required references, photos, transcripts, and essays. 3. Be rude or abusive to the judges. Telling the judges that they will burn in Hades if they don??™t pick don??™t pick you, or that they are idiots because they don??™t accept applications from students in your major is a sure-fire way to guarantee you will NOT be considered for this application, and that the judges will tell all their judge friends how nasty you are. 4. Submit a dirty application. Use a plate for your lunch, not your application. Don??™t spill beer on your application!5. Apply when you do not meet their minimum requirements. If they require a minimum 3.0 GPA and you have a 1.2 GPA, don??™t waste your time!6. Send it ???postage due.??? Oops!7. Mail the envelope but forget to out the application in it. Surprisingly common!8. Submit inappropriate supporting documentation, such as including a picture of you at age 6 months when the application asks for you to include a photo, or including a copy of your arrest record as a reference! (This really happened!)9. No one can read your application. The use of fancy, hard to read script typefaces on your essay pr handwriting that even a doctor would be ashamed of. 10. Spelling errors! Even ONE spelling error can doom your application! Remember, if you do not take the time to spell-check your application, the judges won??™t take the time to read it!


Cosi shows that love is a universal human experience. Discuss.Cosi by Lewis Nowra was a play set in the 1970??™s about members of the mental asylum performing a play in the backdrop of the Vietnam War. ???Cosi Fan Tutte??™ shows love as a main theme of the play. Love is the emotional connection between people or the complete admiration of something from a person or group of people. This is shown in Cosi from the perspective of Lewis towards the play of ???Cosi Fan Tutte??™ as he??™s love for the play grows as the play progresses. A universal human experience is something that everyone feels or experiences at some stage in their life and love is one of these experiences. Although Lucy experiences a sense of love she seems to shut it out and consider it as unimportant to her, which Lewis agrees with at first. We see Roy??™s love for the play and for Mozart, however it is evident through the play that he believe love is not entirely a universal human experience. We also see that many of the asylum patients haven??™t experienced love because they are kept away from the rest of the community. The opera of ???Cosi Fan Tutte??™ which Lewis and the asylum patients are performing is based around the themes of love and fidelity. By performing the opera the characters explore their views and values about love and fidelity. This is shown through the character of Lewis as at the beginning of the play in agreement with he??™s girlfriend Lucy he believe that ???love is not so important nowadays???, however Lewis discovers over the course of the play that love is important, through the discovery of Nick sleeping with Lucy and also the commitment that he finds himself giving towards the opera. This shows that although love may not occur for someone in particular, it may occur for something. In many instances factors such as sport or certain hobbies can invoke feelings of love and commitment, and in this instance the opera of ???Cosi Fan Tutte??™ ended up becoming what Lewis ???loved??™. By the end of the play Lewis has discovered that ???without love the world wouldn??™t mean very much??™. Lucy, Lewis??™s girlfriend is a character in the play that definitely hides her feelings of love or her care for it. Lewis explains this when he says ???she hates to talk about love. She things its icky,???. Lucy basically asks Lewis to choose between the opera and her, stating that the opera is unimportant. Lucy??™s thought about love and its importance is shown when she sleeps with Lewis??™ best friend Nick. This proves that to her ???love is not so important nowadays???. Roy??™s love for Mozart is evident as soon as we meet him as many of the things he says come from a Mozart play or something he said. Roy is the character that suggests ???Cosi Fan Tutte??™ to Lewis even though it would involve singing and it??™s in Italian. This shows that Roy??™s love for Mozart from the start slowly rubs off on Lewis as the play progresses. Back in the 1970??™s people with some sort of problem were considered crazy and all thrown together in one group. This is evident in Lewis Nowra??™s play of ???Cosi??™ as all asylum patients are taken from the rest of the community and restricted to an asylum ward. This leads to why a majority of the patients want to be a part of the play, as it is an opportunity to get away from it all. In the end this is what they learn to love over time although people??™s views during the time almost showed that asylum patients did not deserve love at all.

How to Write a Letter – Garrison Keillor

Preservation of a Letter
As technology has become more common, writing a letter has become an act of the past. The essay ???How to Write a Letter???, by author Garrison Keillor, is trying to portray to a younger audience that taking the time out of one??™s day to write out a letter to a dear friend would mean a lot to him or her. Keillor uses many strategies to persuade the reader that letters are still a practical and possibly more personal way to communicate.
Keillor is merely situating the idea of writing a letter in our heads to make sure we do not bypass our typical lazy thought process, which directly links us to instant messaging, emails, or a simple phone call. Keillor writes out genuinely friendly notes on paper so the reader can visually identify what he depicts as an informal letter. With his playful examples of an unconventional letter, he is trying to captivate a younger, more technologically advanced, generation. Through the essay, it is evident an extraordinary effort is focused to separate this new young generation away from modern technology and to show them another, more compassionate way to communicate with another person regardless of to whom they may be writing to. In addition, Keillor explains how writing should not be an obligatory event. Moreover, writing a letter for pleasure does not require extensive planning.
specifically to write to them deeply touches that person. Keillor reasons with the reader that writing an approximate fifty-word letter can depict much more than one phone call. Keillor is trying to encourage a younger, more modern generation to preserve their past through the process of writing letters. The extent to which the author goes to explain his stance on writing letters gives the reader the inspiration explained through the essay. Realistically, writing a letter does not take much time out of one??™s day. Letters do not need to be elaborate; however, if you are in a creative mood, a letter can express your own individuality to the receiver. One can always decorate the letter, as Keillor says, ???It??™s not a term paper??? (Keillor 314), therefore, if it brings you content to decorate the letter by coloring, drawing or even painting it, go for it. Ultimately, one can include or exclude as many details as they want in the outgoing envelope.
Works Cited
Keillor, Garrison. ???How to Write a Letter.???
The Norton Reader: An Anthology of Nonfiction. Ed. Linda H. Peterson and John C. Brereton: Shorter 12th ed. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 2004. 312-316.


English EssayHow significant is the concept of fidelity as a link between the characters and between Nowra??™s play and Mozart??™s operaThe concept of fidelity is as significant. Fidelity is a quality of a human being faithful and loyal. The characters in Cosi, Louis Nowra??™s play and Mozart??™s opera all have different attitude to fidelity. Mozart??™s opera Cosi Fan Tutte reflects the ideas of love and fidelity that are mirrored through the characters in Nowra??™s play.A range of attitudes are presented by the various characters, Doug states ???Women like to pretend they don??™t? play? around but they??™re just more secretive about it.”Whereas Cherry and Ruth offer negative views about sex, Cherry asserts that ???most women fight hard to keep men out of their pants??? while Ruth??™s analysis is that ???men like sex more than women because they don??™t have to clean up the mess.???Julie??™s attitude about love is a direct opposition to Lucy??™s though they have similarities as she says ???Men want women to deceive them because it??™ll prove their worst thoughts about women??? while Lucy states ???women only pretend to be true and unfaithful??? because ???that??™s how they want us to be , eve if they??™re not true and faithful themselves???.Lewis comes to realise comparing that his life outside in the real world and the character he is playing, changed views throughout as he associates with the patients. At the beginning, he says that ???love is not important nowadays??? and ???free love is a hard concept to define??? however, as Nowra??™s play progresses his views changed. When Lewis??™ engagement to doing Mozart??™s opera grew with the patients, his outlook on the concept altered as he states ???it??™s about important things ??“ like love and fidelity.By performing the opera, the various characters explore their views and values about fidelity and this is reflected in how Lewis changes. From doing the play, he grew and develops characteristics of human nature from believing that ???love is not important nowadays??? to ???it??™s about important things like love and fidelity???. His journey along his life makes him realise that people becomes something else because of their experiences from the past.

How to Work with Carers

Advice for nurses working with children and young people
This information was updated May 2008. For further information, please contact [email protected]
IntroductionThis information has been developed by the NMC in conjunction with children and young people, parents and other carers, nurses and other staff. It is relevant to all nurses and midwives seeking to develop their practice in order to respond sensitively and appropriately to the needs of children and young people.In developing this advice, children and young people, parents and other carers, nurses and other staff who care for children and young people participated in a series of workshops across the UK to identify:What should a child or young person expect from a nurse caring for them
What should a nurse caring for children and young people be
What should a nurse caring for children and young people do
The findings are incorporated in this document.The NMC recognises that the provision of contemporary healthcare to children and young people is strongly influenced by Government policy drivers across the four countries of the UK and by significant advances in knowledge and technological capability, which result in new interventions and changing public expectation.Because the field of children??™s and young people??™s healthcare is developing rapidly and is challenging traditional boundaries of professional groups, ethical frameworks, models of service delivery and public expectation, nurses need additional advice in order to interpret The code: Standards for conduct, performance and ethics for nurses and midwives (2008) (the code) appropriately within this context.The NMC recognises that safe, effective and appropriate children??™s nursing involves more than just the application of theory to practice. It involves an awareness and application of self, a motivation to build trusting relationships with children and young people and with their parents, and active consideration of the rights of children as set out in the 1989 United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child.Nurses working with children and young people have the needs and rights of the child, independent of their parents as their focus but also recognise and acknowledge the needs of parents and their right to parent their child. This creates a tension in respect of enabling the child to exercise their rights, for example, keeping the child/young person??™s confidence and enabling them to take decisions where it is appropriate to do so. This is in part governed by legislation around consent and the circumstances in which a child or young person can consent for themselves.Nurses working with children and young people have an absolute duty to safeguard and protect children and young people from harm, and this can mean breaking confidences by sharing information in order to protect, and dealing with the very difficult situations that can arise as a result.This advice is designed to support the development of nurses working with children and young people so that they can be effective in the application of their self-awareness, as well as effective in applying their knowledge and skills. It provides a framework for best practice and offers an added support to the interpretation of the code. It should be read in conjunction with the code and with the Values for integrated work with children and young people.This document should also help employers and education providers to develop and implement systems that can support best practice and develop reflective, emotionally competent practitioners. The advice recognises and embraces the values and needs of children and young people and of their parents, as identified by them throughout the drafting of this document, and aims to further safeguard the health and wellbeing of the public by addressing the necessary application of self-awareness in effective children??™s nursing.A note on terminologyFor the purposes of this document the term parents encompasses parents and other legal carers.The term family encompasses parents, siblings, grandparents and other relatives as well as other people who have significance for the child or young person, including friends, neighbours etc.The NMC code: Standards of conduct, performance and ethics for nurses and midwivesThe advice in this document is based on the following four principles set out clearly within the code”Make the care of people your first concern, treating them as individuals and respecting their dignity””Work with others to protect and promote the health and wellbeing of those in your care, their families and carers, and the wider community””Provide a high standard of practice and care at all times””Be open and honest, act with integrity and uphold the reputation of your profession”The advice has been developed by the NMC in conjunction with children, young people, parents, carers, nurses and others who work with children to guide nurses as they seek to continually develop their practice in order to meet the needs of children and young people.What can a child or young person expect from a nurse caring for them???Be the best you can be.??? (child participant at Edinburgh roadshow, 2006)Children??™s nurses have specialist training to care for children. They are educated in children??™s physical, cognitive and emotional development and take account of children??™s developmental stages in these areas in their practice. They know that the needs of children and young people change over time and that they develop the skills and abilities to become increasingly involved in their care. Children??™s nurses also know that communication in all forms is vital to enable this to happen and to reduce fear and anxiety for the child/young person and for their parents.Nurses working with children and young people should be confident and competent in providing the fundamental aspects of care. This gives confidence to the child/young person and to their parents.This confidence and competence is underpinned by knowledge and practical ability in the areas of child development; communication with children, young people and their families; play and entertainment; and family and other social systems important in the lives of children and young people.Competence and confidence in clinical skills are also important for children, young people and their parents. Nurses working with children and young people should be mindful of the additional distress that some procedures can cause at different stages of the child/young person??™s development, especially where the nurse is learning and appears fearful herself.Moreover, nurses working with children and young people need to be able to provide support and education to children, young people and their families in order to enable them to understand what needs to be done and why, to make decisions about their treatment options and to be able to contribute meaningfully to their own care.PrinciplesPrinciple 1: Make the care of children, young people and their parents your first concern, treating them as individuals and respecting their dignityPrinciple 2: Work with others to protect and promote the health and wellbeing of those in your care, their families and carers, and the wider communityPrinciple 3: Provide a high standard of practice and care at all timesPrinciple 4: Be open and honest, act with integrity and uphold the reputation of your professionPrinciple 1: Make the care of children, young people and their parents your first concern, treating them as individuals and respecting their dignity1.1. Treat people as individualsIntroduce yourself and your role to the child/young person and their parents.Get to know the child/young person and their parents as individuals ??“ accept that all families are different.Work in such a way as to ensure that children??™s and young people??™s rights are protected and asserted.Use your knowledge and expertise to communicate directly with children and young people; listen and respond appropriately to what they say themselves.Plan your care to build in time for personal contact ??“ be friendly, professional and compassionate.Be attentive to the needs of children and young people and make time for interventions ??“ don??™t rush. Be prepared to be flexible and patient.Acknowledge the role of siblings, other family members and friends in the lives of children and young people and the effect that illness or disability may have on them. Work positively with siblings and friends for the benefit of the child/young person.Act in ways that recognise and acknowledge the expressed beliefs or choices of children, young people and their parents ??“ don??™t be judgemental.Provide information for parents about how they can meet their personal needs (for example where they can eat cheaply when their child is in hospital; where they can meet other parents whose children have similar health needs; who in their local community can provide support and other services to assist) and what is expected of them in relation to their child??™s care.1.2. Respect confidentialityWork within the legal frameworks of the country in which you are working to hold and share information, being mindful of your duty to protect children and young people from harm and to co-operate with other members of the team in order to provide safe and effective care.Share information that is required for safe practice and to safeguard children and young people in a sensitive and proportionate manner.Work with children and young people to assist them in talking openly to others and sharing their own information.Where consent to share information is not given, you must decide and justify your decision to share the information or to withhold it.Seek advice from your manager or experts in the field when you are unsure whether to share information.Ask the child/young person how they want you to communicate sensitive information.When using technology such as mobile phones and email to communicate with children and young people, you need to balance the benefits against the risk of breach of confidentiality.You should follow guidance, policy and legislation in doing this.1.3. Collaborate with those in your careRecognise the knowledge and skill held by parents and by the child/young person in relation to their child and their illness, disability or treatments.Work in partnership with parents (and others where appropriate) to enable them to be involved when they wish to in all aspects of the child/young person??™s care through.Take steps to identify and overcome any barriers to understanding, whether this is the result of verbal language, disability, stage of development and understanding or anxiety.1.4. Ensure you gain consentEnsure your practice is within the legal frameworks for consent and capacity for the country in which you are working.Empower children and young people and their parents through providing information and giving them time for making decisions.Respect the rights of children and young people and of their parents within the legal frameworks.Explain honestly what needs to be done and why, and whether there are any choices to be made. If there are choices, help children and young people to make decisions using play and other appropriate means of communication.Where there is a disagreement between the child/young person and their parents, or between parents, use clinical governance frameworks to seek advice on how to resolve the situation before the intervention or course of treatment begins.Document the content of all discussions, any disagreements and the action you have taken to resolve this and the outcome.Give information as early as possible, be prepared to repeat this and to discuss any concerns ??“ consent must be voluntary and without coercion.Check that the child/young person and their parent / carer understand the information they have been given. Be prepared to explain complex concepts which are not understood and document the discussions.Ask questions of other members of the team on behalf of children, young people or their parents where they are not able to do this themselves.1.5. Maintain clear professional boundariesBuild relationships with children and young people that are based on trust and respect.Act in a professional manner and maintain professional boundaries in your relationships with children, young people and their parents. This means being clear about your role as a nurse and saying ???no??™ to their requests for personal support outside your contract of employment.Seek advice from your supervisor or manager if you are in any doubt about where the professional boundaries are or if your feel you have crossed those boundaries.back to topPrinciple 2: Work with others to protect and promote the health and wellbeing of those in your care, their families and carers, and the wider community2.1. Share information with your colleaguesProvide verbal and written information to other members of the team in order to enable them to care safely and effectively for the child/young personCommunicate with colleagues in the care setting and with the child/young person and their parents about your plan of care.You have a duty to safeguard and promote the welfare of children and young people at all times.2.2. Work effectively as part of a teamUnderstand and be proud of your role as a children??™s nurse.Understand and respect the roles of others members of the team.Collaborate and work in partnership with others to provide holistic care for the individual child or young person. This includes working with parents and the child/young person and with members of other professional groups and sectors.2.3. Delegate effectivelyWhere you need to delegate aspects of care to others, you are responsible for ensuring that they have the necessary knowledge and skills, and you remain accountable for their care if they are not a registered professional.2.4. Manage riskWork with others to identify potential risks to children and young people and generate strategies to manage these risks, recognising and acknowledging that risk-taking is a normal part of development which enables children and young people to learn strategies for assessing and managing risk themselves as they grow and develop.Ensure that the physical environment is appropriate for children, young people and their families, and highlight safety concerns where you are not able to take immediate action to remove, reduce or manage the riskEnsure that essential standards for environmental safety and clinical practice are maintained and take appropriate action when these fall below agreed levels.Report, reflect on and learn from adverse events and near misses.Work flexibly to ensure safe levels of cover and appropriate skill mix for the level of activity and dependency.Use resources effectively and efficiently in order to provide the best possible care within limited resources. This includes prioritising care and contributing to the development and implementation of more effective and efficient ways of working.back to top Principle 3: Provide a high standard of practice and care at all times3.1. Use the best available evidenceEnsure that your nursing interventions are based on evidence or best practice principles.Ensure that best practice principles are applied in relation to involving children in research, involving the organisation??™s research governance lead where there are concerns about the research study.3.2. Keep your knowledge and skills up to dateEnsure that you remain competent to perform the range of nursing interventions required for the children and young people in your care within the parameters of the role in which you are employed.Take steps to acquire new knowledge and skills to meet the needs of children and young people as interventions and roles develop and change over time.Use reflective practice, supervision, work-place and other forms of learning to maintain and enhance your skills and knowledge.Use performance review processes to identify appropriate formal learning opportunities such as further training and education programmes to enhance your practice and your professional development.Be conscious of the impact on children and young people of tentative, nervous attempts to learn new skills and wherever possible, make appropriate opportunities to gain competence before practising on a child.Maintain knowledge of local voluntary and statutory organisations which can offer support to children, young people and their families and seek to make connections.Use knowledge of children??™s development and how this impacts on anatomy, physiology, understanding, physical development to underpin your practice and to assess the physical, emotional and psychological risks posed to children, young people and their family as a consequence of the child/young person??™s illness, disability or being in a care setting.Ensure that you are appropriately trained and competent in respect of the knowledge and skills required to deliver all aspects of care, in particular those deemed of higher risk such as the administration of medicines and invasive interventions.back to topPrinciple 4: Be open and honest, act with integrity and uphold the reputation of your profession4.1. Act with integrityTake account of your own behaviour and attitudes and the effect this has on relationships with children, young people and their parents.Be open, honest and consistent in your interactions with children, young people and their parents, and with colleagues.4.2. Deal with problemsChallenge others in the team who do not hold the child/young person??™s interests as central, and who may put their professional aspirations above the needs of the child/young person.


???Lewis tells Roy, ???no one is a success or a failure???. How much does the play support or refute this statementThe world of Cosi does portray failures and successes but it does not label them such No, what Cosi does is take people that today??™s society would mark as failures or successful and prove how this is not set in stone, also that the lines that class people as failures or successes is viewed differently from person to person. Nowra is proving how peoples personality are false and flawed. Cosi the play shows that most people are pretending to be someone else and if that false person gets called a success then isn??™t that a false sense of success. Today??™s world is experiencing a incredible false idea of success, we look at billboards and see the ideal us, but that us is false there is no one on the planet that looks like that, it??™s all electronic trying to get us to spend our money on the thought of achieving perfection. And perfection is just the top of success, so in reality the world is caught on achieving something that does not exist. So if we then take a look at the crazy patients from the play they seem to be the ones most open to reality and sure footed people. While outside the walls of the institute the people are running around scared of being outcast. The patients in the institution have strong voices and know what they want, even Henry who is a stuttering insecure man, finds is voice and does not hesitate to show is opinion when he or is beliefs are threatened. This is clearly proven when Henry attacks Nick about being a communist, Henry show strong character and prepose evidence that no one is can be set as a failure. I think Nowra set out to prove to society that failures and successful people don??™t exist and for the people he couldn??™t convinces he shows them that you can be whoever you want as long as you go for it. This play is littered with the most extraordinary and ordinary people, living intertwined behind the institution walls. And as the play goes on it becomes harder to see the difference between patients and the every day person. In this play there are people like Nick a collage success following is passion in directing and acting. He is also the best friend of Lewis who is directing the play Cosi Fan Tutte, now if you met Nick walking down the street next to Henry you would see to opposites. One would be looking confident and sure about himself and the other insecure and nervous, and you would probably think of Henry as a failure if you compeer him to Nick. But I highly doubt that Henry would sleep with Lucy if he was Lewis??™s best friend who is going out with Lucy because he values friend ship highly and is morally just. Nick however is self centred and over confident, and thinks Lucy is attractive so he jumps at the opportunity when Lucy and Nick are fighting and sleeps with her because is morals are corrupt.And that is the real world we live in a uncertain one, a world that is not what it seems and to be where everyone is a failure and a success no one is one or the other. And that is why failures and successes don??™t exit because we are all unstable and uncut gems.

How to Use Ant-20

Fix the ???missing slave cfcard??™ in the Slave MPU Board of an NE-40E router
Phenomenon Description:
The cfcard of the slave MPU Board of an NE-40E router is disappearing from the VRP OS although the Slave MPU board is functioning perfectly.Defects of this problem:
1.If there is a hardware failure of Master Board and power reboot of the chassis, the router cannot recover because it cannot read the VRP OS and configuration files of the router, hence causing network down for a significant of time.
2.Performing Software upgrade of Router in a redundant (Master and Slave) MPU board situation is not possible. The cfcard must be seen in both Master and Slave MPU board, and the same copies of VRP OS, patch ,and configuration files must always exist in both board at the same time. Details
When performing the command of
dir slave#cfcard: , an error messages appeared,
dir slave#cfcard:
Error: The device is invalid. “slave#cfcard:”although under the ???display health??™ , ???display device??™ and ???display version??™ commands, the MPU slave board looks functioning well.
1. display health
Slot CPU Usage Memory Usage(Used/Total)
9 MPU(Master) 12% 52% 993MB/1901MB
2 LPU 5% 46% 189MB/405MB
3 LPU 7% 44% 407MB/917MB
5 SPU 4% 27% 253MB/917MB
7 LPU 5% 46% 190MB/405MB
8 LPU 5% 46% 190MB/405MB
10 MPU(Slave) 4% 11% 225MB/1901MB2. display version
MPU 10(Slave) : uptime is 400 days, 1 hour, 12 minutes
StartupTime 2009/06/29 12:49:29
SDRAM Memory Size : 2048M bytes
Flash Memory Size : 32M bytes
NVRAM Memory Size : 512K bytes
CF Card1 Memory Size: 487M bytes
CF Card2 Memory Size: 489M bytes
MPU version information:
1. PCB Version : CR52SRUA REV C
2. EPLD1 Version : 106
3. EPLD2 Version : 108
4. FPGA Version : 009
5. BootROM Version : 74.0
6. BootLoad Version : 216.0
7. Software Version : Version 5.50 RELEASE 0041
MIF version information:
1. PCB Version : CR52MIFB REV C
2. FPGA Version : 009
MonitorBUS version information:
1. PCB Version : CR31MBSA REV A
2. EPLD Version : 019
3. Software Version : 3.83.
===============display device====================
NE40Es Device status:
Slot # Type Online Register Status Primary
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
2 LPU Present Registered Normal NA
3 LPU Present Registered Normal NA
5 SPU Present Registered Normal NA
7 LPU Present Registered Normal NA
8 LPU Present Registered Normal NA
9 MPU Present NA Normal Master
10 MPU Present Registered Normal Slave
11 SFU Present Registered Normal NA
12 SFU Present Registered Normal NA
13 SFU Present Registered Normal NA
14 SFU Present Registered Normal NA
15 CLK Present Registered Normal Master
16 CLK Present Registered Normal Slave
17 PWR Present NA Normal NA
18 PWR Present NA Normal NA
19 FAN Present Registered Normal NA Troubleshooting plan: 1. Unplug the Slave MPU Board from the chassis of NE-40E router.
2. Wait for 5 minutes. Ensure everything is normal during the 5 minutes time.
3. Insert the Slave MPU Board back to the chassis again.
4. If the file information appears after entering the ???dir slave#cfcard:??™ command,dir slave#cfcard:
Directory of slave#cfcard:/ Idx Attr Size(Byte) Date Time(LMT) FileName
0 -rw- 160,102,672 Jan 22 2009 10:42:36
1 -rw- 13,995 Dec 10 2009 13:40:00 license.txt
2 -rw- 72,583 Dec 10 2009 13:38:40 paf.txt
3 -rw- 396 Aug 25 2008 15:12:56 patchnpstate.dat
4 -rw- 16,267 Jun 16 2008 16:03:44 paf.txt.bak
5 -rw- 525,065 Dec 10 2009 17:00:16 private-data.txt
6 -rw- 1,653 Sep 14 2010 07:29:42
7 -rw- 65,572 Aug 25 2008 11:42:52 paf20080825.txt
8 -rw- 12,757 Aug 25 2008 11:43:12 license20080825.txt
9 -rw- 2,304 Feb 19 2010 00:03:42 $_patchstate_a
10 -rw- 196 Dec 10 2009 16:25:04 picdrvcfg.ini
11 -rw- 632 Aug 25 2008 12:37:36 $_patchstate_a.backup
12 -rw- 66,301 Jan 22 2009 10:46:30 paf20090122.txt
13 -rw- 12,996 Jan 22 2009 10:46:38 license20090122.txt
14 -rw- 214,717,888 Dec 10 2009 13:18:28
15 -rw- 396 Dec 10 2009 17:43:56 rsahostkey.dat
16 -rw- 540 Dec 10 2009 17:43:56 rsaserverkey.dat
17 -rw- 1,071,416 Feb 19 2010 00:02:44 v3r6c01sph007.pat498,680 KB total (130,688 KB free)Then, the cfcard has become normal again.5. If the cfcard still does not appear in the slave MPU board, then get ready to replace the Slave MPU Board with a new Slave MPU, due to this cfcard internal hardware failure in the board.Lessons Learned:It??™s worth try out unplugging the MPU board from the chassis and then plug it back to the main chassis (after a period of time) to see if problem can be resolved, before we doing a replacement of the entire MPU board.



By spending time and their experiences together Lewis and the rest of the characters have all improved themselves. This is seen through Julie, Nick and Zac from the play ???Cosi??™ written by Louis Nowra. Everyone wanted to start a fresh new life and by doing so Nick and Zac had became successful people while Julie had started her new life very well but soon passed away. Julie a character from the play ???Cosi??™ is in the Mental Institution for the first time because of a drug addiction. Julie had come to this play to do something that she had never done before, star in a play about Love and Fidelity. Now that the performance of the play is over Julie has stated that ???I??™m leaving this place???, Lewis is shocked that she is leaving and wants to take her to the station but Julie would like him to visit her before she leaves. Julie is now heading off to Sydney with her girlfriend to start a new chapter in her life, and also states that ???I need something stable in my life???. This suggest that she is ready for what??™s coming up in her future in Sydney and with her girlfriend, but later on Lewis goes to Sydney to visit her but he has just read the paper and its states ??? Julie has died on an drug overdose???. This also proves that you can change a lot of your life, but you will always end up going back to your normal self and doing the same stuff you have done in your past but doing it in your future. Nick is a character that is up himself a lot throughout the play, he is also a passionate supporter of the Communists in Vietnam and also a protester against the war. But this has given him becoming the Labour MP in the Upper House. This is also because he had organised the Moratorium meeting in Act 1. Nick hasn??™t improved his new life because he believes that Lewis is wasting his time in the asylum and also has betrayed his best mates trust but sleeping with his girlfriend Lucy, and this has caused a war about directing a play and who is better at directing than the other. So now Nick has lost a great friend and also things didn??™t work out between Lucy and himself because the both didn??™t believe in fidelity. Zac is the musician of the group, he loves to play music and throughout the play he is the right person who plays the piano in the performance. Right after the performance Zac has pressure his musical talent in a rock and roll band. They had a hit but them he had changed his career and started a Polka band in Melbourne; this was very big in the Melbourne German and Austrian clubs. He was the only character that has a great career out of the Melbourne Mental Institution, he has succeeded in changing his life around and also starting fresh even though he is still in Melbourne. The characters of ???Cosi??™ have changed a little bit of their lives through the spending of time with each other and their learning new experiences from the play they have performed together.