How Was the 1950s a Period of Conformity

The decade of the 1950s brought forth another era of good feelings as America thought of themselves proudly as undefeated and a supreme country. Americans gathered together as one against Communism, a fear that they considered the enemy. This collaboration distinguished the true Americans from the rest, which eventually formed into a society of noticeable similarity. The 1950s was definitely a period of conformity, which can be proven by the conflict that arose as a result of those who rebelled against this cloned society.
Conformity grew from the rich soil of national fear, and lived on the phobia of change. The concept of Communism was one that had a huge effect on everyone. It was the American enemy and America wanted nothing but to destroy it, to keep it our of the minds of anyone who lived amongst them. In February of 1950, a man named Joseph R. McCarthy charged that there were unknown scores of communists in the State Department. He was unable to prove these accusations, but many American still feared its possibility. McCarthy then charged that Secretary of State Dean Acheson was knowingly employing 205 Communist Party Members , another accusation with no evidence. Although President Dwight D. Eisenhower privately loathed McCarthy, the majority of Americans seemed to support him, thus allowing McCarthy to thrive. His next actions included the denouncing of General George Marshall and attacking the army, in which he was finally exposed as a liar and a drunk. Unfortunately by then, American culture was convinced and became one that would conform. Communism created a mass of paranoid civilians, who decided that conforming was the only way of distinguishing an honest American from a fake.
Conformity was physical, mental, and emotional. The image of the 1950s was that of the traditional family, with a working father, mother at home, and children living in suburbia with their televisions and similar style. The fact that every family was basically doing the same, saying the same, buying the same, and living the same shows that they were conforming and living to their expectations of the average American. Physically, women wore the same kind of clothing as other women, cut their hair in the same short, curled style, and worked at home as the perfect wife and mother. Men were expected to work to provide for their family. They came home to their house that was built the same as their neighbors to use the appliances that everyone else had. Mentally, 1950s civilians shared the same morals, the same beliefs, the same state of mind. They commonly and quietly agreed in the secret of sexuality. To them, it was only right to not educate their children on sex. This belief was widespread, as television was extremely censored, nothing sexual allowed on it. This included the word pregnancy and the image of women wearing immodest bathing suits. It was a crime to have sex outside of marriage. Having sex without being married was not tolerated. Doctors could also be jailed for providing their patients with information on birth control, even to married women. Emotionally, those who did not conform were devalued, people became emotionally upset and unstable when there were anomalies who did not act how everyone else did. Inevitably, calamitous events were the result of the non-conformists. Parents protested everything that they felt went against what they so strongly believed in. They protested change.
Because non-conformity was such an issue, it only validated the fact that the majority of the 1950s society were conformists. When the Beat Generation began, “beatniks” began a new trend: non-conformity. Thus came many such as Tennessee Williams, who created A Streetcar Named Desire that openly expressed homosexuality in a time where it was illegal. Alfred Kinsey wanted sex to be talked about and did studies on sexual behavior and reproduction. His “Kinsey Reports” caused controversy, hundreds of parents announcing that he needed to stop implementing this idea into the minds of the young, but even worse, people began to agree with him. Next came a man with a big dream, Hugh Hefner. He found the beautiful Marilyn Monroe who had posed nude for Tom Kelly in order to pay her bills. She became the first sex symbol, embarrassed at first to show her true identity, but eventually embracing the attention and individuality. The new magazine created by Hefner; Playboy, devalued the tradition of modesty. Hugh Hefner then went after the radical idea of freedom from marriage, a concept that shocked society into anger or realization. Monroe and Hefner were eventually embraced for their individuality, and those with traditional values feared these people would influence the younger generations negatively. Then arose Rock and Roll, a music revolution that brought forth Elvis Presley, who performed suggestible songs that were related to sex. His image was very different from that of the average man in the 1950s, and his words impressed a huge crowd of fans, black and white alike. This situation caused more controversy then ever before, mainly because parents feared that the suggestible music would cause their white daughters to be involved with African-American boys. This segregation was not uncommon in the 1950s, and blacks desired for the inequality to end. Martin Luther King Jr. rose as an amazingly inspirational non-violent civil rights activist. Rosa Parks non-conformed by not allowing a white civilian sit in her seat on the bus. This change was condemned. Traditions were slowly deteriorating and opinions became the new fear of America. Conformists feared non-conformists because they wanted nothing to change.
Conformity can be defined as action? in? accord? with? prevailing? social? standards, attitudes, or practices. The 1950s era can be defined similarly. As a fear of change in value, conformity rose as the unconscious law. The 1950s was an era of this, with a determination to keep things the way things work, when nobody realized; if everything stays the same, improvement is impossible.

Cost Approach- Contemporary Issues

Cost Approach- Contemporary IssuesIssue:When must an appraiser do the cost approachA: The first factor is in the Scope of Work decision. This decision is a result of communication with the client. Did the client ask for it If yes, it is required since it would be part of the scope of work requested.B. Within that agreed upon scope, is it necessary to produce a credible opinion of value If yes, then it must be done even if the client agrees that they do not need it. Issue:May I or should I charge and additional fee for doing the cost approachIt depends. What was your original agreement with the client If they do want it, why do they want it Did you cover this in your assignment conditions Is this a regular client for whom you normally produce the cost approachEssentially, the answer is basically a business decision for the appraiser. It results from direct communication and negotiation with the client. Some appraisers are charging extra for it while others are not. The typical client today will not pay more for it. Therefore, charging extra for it may well cause the client to seek an alternate vendor for that assignment. However, this is a question that can truly only be answered by the individual appraisal firm. Issue:How can an appraiser determine the appropriate value for a site in an area that is nearly fully developed There are a few techniques. Many of them are covered in the basic appraisal courses. However, since so many appraisers do so few land appraisals, many have forgotten or never even learned the techniques. First, one must answer the question of whether or not the area is really totally developed. Often, this is an assumption that does not turn out to be true. Many areas, even in what we might automatically assume are fully developed neighborhoods, still have some vacant land available for sale. So, the first step is to actually check!Once you know it really is, there are two primary techniques that can be employed.The first is via the cost approach itself. Not many appraisers actually do a cost approach on the comparable sales in an area. However, a ???generalized??? cost approach can actually be done on available improved sales that might reasonably be compared to the subject property. Start with the true comps for the subject. If they are in the same condition- and you are supposed to find that out so that you can make meaningful comparisons- then you should be able to replace those comparable improvements (theoretically) on paper. Once you depreciate them, you can then deduct the depreciated cost of the improvements from the sales price. The result is an indication of the site under those improvements.This technique is called abstraction or extraction.The second technique is allocation.Where you know the ratio between land and building values in an area, you can simply apply the land percentage to the overall value and obtain the land portion. Clearly, this is the easiest method since it involves only one calculation; however, it does assume that you have, over at least some volume of work, done these calculations on a material number of properties.So, what do you do if your subject neighborhood does not yield adequate amounts of data Then, go to the nearest comparable area and use the data from that area in which the values, appeal etc. are similar to the subject??™s area. Issue:What cost data services are the bestThe answer is obvious: the best ones are those that are the most accurate and the easiest to use. Less obvious, of course, is how to make that determination, and the process is going to be an individual exercise. Two of the most popular are Marshall & Swift and Bluebook. Since both are exhibitors at this conference, I encourage all to visit their booths and discuss how they compile their data and how to use their services. Issue:What is insurable value and why should I careInsurable value, as it is commonly used in the industry, is really a possible misnomer. The word ???value??? to appraisers will almost always mean something that is the result of an opinion. However, in the industry, this term is really used to denote the cost of replacing the existing improvements on a site should they be destroyed. Of course, an estimate of replacement cost new is considered to be a fact whereas a value is an opinion.Appraisers are beginning to care more and more about this since many lending clients are using the replacement cost new found in the cost approach as the insurable value.Should you care Again, this depends upon many factors. How careful were you in developing your estimate of RCN Did you do the approach with the understanding that your client might use it for estimating adequate levels of hazard insurance.Issue:If I do the cost approach and someone uses it for insurance purposes, does that increase my liabilityYes- almost assuredly. One member of the ASB, at a recent seminar, told the group that two legal cases have already been decided on this matter. In one case, the appraiser said nothing about its use as a basis for insurance and, when the improvements were destroyed, the owner could not replace them for the cost cited in the cost approach. That appraiser apparently lost the case.In another case, the appraiser specifically stated that the data in the approach should not be used for insurance purposes and, so we are told, successfully defended the case.Some E+O firms are advising appraisers to prohibit the use of their estimated RCN for insurance purposes. Some appraisers do this while others do not. The choice is clearly up to the individual appraisal.Because many clients want the approach in case they wish to use it for those purposes, it often becomes a part of the assignment. As a fee appraiser, you should certainly know what the client will use your report for- it is called intended use and it is the appraiser??™s responsibility to know that as a result of the client/appraiser communications that lead to the scope of work decision. Within the typical assignment, the cost approach is intended to be an additional indicator of value. Therefore, developing replacement cost new for insurance purposes would be a different use, altogether.Advice on this issue is to first make sure that your scope of work conf9orms to what the client really needs. If they indicate that they may use your cost approach for insurance value, whether or not you want to charge more is a business decision that you will have to make. Obviously, if there is the possibility that such use will occur, make sure you have done the approach correctly. If there is a lack of comfort with that part of the assignment, rather than including wording that prohibits such use when you know it will or can happen, a disclaimer may be a better alternative. Wording along the lines that anyone using it for insurance purposes does so at their own risk and that the appraiser will not accept liability may be an acceptable alternative. However, each appraiser should consult with their own attorney or E+O insurance carrier for advice. Issue:Many appraisers decline to do the cost approach on older properties and state that the results are not credible using this approach due to the difficulty in estimating accrued depreciation. Is this based in sound appraisal theoryUsually, no.There certainly situations in which a cost approach will not yield a value indication that would be considered credible, but actual age is rarely one of them.Some clear situations are condominiums or PUDs where common areas are never sold. In addition an older home that has historic significance due to the architect, builder, or due to some historic occurrence within the improvements could never be reproduced in a fashion that includes the event or historic component, so the cost approach in such a case would be futile. However, most older homes can really be done.Part of the problem lies in the texts that are authored in the profession. The real problem in estimating depreciation lies in the estimate of effective age. When one refers to the texts, it becomes clear that authors direct the students to the marketplace for their data. Virtually every piece of data comes from the market. It is for that very reason that the profession no longer refers to the sales comparison approach as the ???market approach???. Everything the appraiser does is supposed to come from the market data.However, as soon as the authors get to the question of effective age we begin to see things like. ???a subjective age based upon the condition of the improvements??? or ???a subjective age determined by observation???. Why should we throw out all this good market data for this one factorThe truth of the matter is that it is not the appraiser who sets the effective age; it is the market. The market sets it directly by assigning an amount of depreciation to the subject improvements. This can be measured. It really is not difficult at all.However, there is one assumption that must be made, namely one must make an estimate of total economic life.Example:The subject is a 95 year old 3 bedroom one bath Bungalow of approximately 1000 SF situated on a city lot. The site value is $165,000.The subject has received a full renovation. Original hardwood floors throughout remain as do the moldings. Both the kitchen and single bath have been completely remodeled. 90% of the interior floors are wood, the balance is ceramic tile. All primary systems have been updated- new boiler for the baseboard heat (no A/C), new water line, upgraded electrical to 100 amp circuit breakers. The exterior is stucco. The basement is unfinished but has an extra 3 fixture bath. The living room has a wood burning fireplace. Kitchen built-in appliances are a dishwasher and disposal; other appliances are personal property. Foundation is 8??? poured concrete. The subject has a new boiler for heat and a new water heater. There is a rear open porch with steps down of 75 SF.The location is XXXX, California. (illustration only)REPLACEMENT COST NEWAverage quality 1000 SF ??“ base: $71.60 (wood frame)Roof- composition shingle (base)Seismic zone (assumed) 1.30Energy adjustment (mild climate) – 0.98Foundation (mild climate) -2.10Refinements:Wood sub-floor (base)
Floor insulation (mild climate) 0.80
Floor cover 90% hardwood (8.52x.9) 7.67
Floor cover 10% ceramic (10.02x.1) 1.00
Hot water heat, baseboard 1.49
Porch- 75 ft. w/steps, open 11.81
________Total before individual items $ 92.59Individual items:Plumbing 8 fixtures (base), no rough in -380.00
WB Fireplace- one story 3,000.00
Appliances: DW+DISP 805.00For refinements add 3.43/SFTotal RCN per SF $ 96.02Current multiplier 1.04 for western/frame 99.86
Local multiplier 1.09 $ 108.85/SF 1000 SF @ $ 108.85 = RCN of $ 108,850
Land $ 165,000

$ 273,85020% profit on improvements $ 21,770 $ 295,620If the subject sold for $ 290,000, and this is the typical price being paid for fully renovated frame bungalows in this market, how much depreciation has the market assigned to the subject property$ 295,620 less $290,000 (SP) = $ 5,620$5,20 is the amount of depreciation that is being assigned by the market and it represents 5.2% of RCN, rounded to 5%.Once we make an assumption about the total economic life of the subject, the effective age is an easy calculation.So, if the subject has a total economic life of say, 65 years, the effective age will be 3-4 yearsPoints from this illustration:1. When we assume that the effective age must be much higher on a home of 95 actual years and ignore what the market is doing, it is very likely that we will start saying that our cost service is wrong. In reality, what is happening is that we are not analyzing the market well enough to know the actions of buyers and sellers.
2. Do not use this method along with the M+S depreciation charts. While those charts are based upon the effective/age life method the methodology and assumptions are different.
3. For properties with substantial deferred maintenance, use the modified effective age/life method. LET THE MARKET TELL YOU WHAT IT IS DOINGModified Effective Age/Life MethodThis is the best way to deal with properties with substantial deferred maintenance issues. The method allows the appraiser to back out any component that is fully depreciated, then depreciate the balance of the home based upon typical market derivations. Adding back the replacement cost new of a necessary, but fully depreciated, component then provides the total amount of depreciation present.This is very useful when large important components, like a roof, needs total replacement. It is the best method for estimating depreciation in an REO property that is in poor condition.

How Wal-Mart Established Its Current International Presence

International Business ??“ 26329IntroductionWal-Mart, back to the year 1962, was just a small discount store that established by Sam Walton has now became one of the largest multinational retail corporation with more than 9,600 stores at 28countries around the world.
In the year 1989, as the developing of world trade organization and regulation, Wal-Mart started to realize that it was a right time and advantages to enter the international market with its advanced technology system, strong corporate culture, frontier management practice and supply chain system while its has opened the first store in Mexico at 1991. By that time, Wal-Mart started to accept the challenge in the international market by constantly enhancing and optimizing their business process, information system, supply chain and management practice in order to cope with the rapid changing environment and rival competition of the international market.
Moreover, it??™s current international scale and commercial success has to a greater and lesser extent influencing the business world??™s pace in terms of business process, logistic system, business innovation and management practices. Thus, it has become a valuable topic to investigate on what is the driving force and cornerstone that pushing Wal-Mart from a small store to a multinational corporation. Growth and innovation process of Wal-Mart???Innovation is the multi-stage process whereby organizations transform ideas into new/improved products, services or processes, in order to advance, compete and differentiate themselves successfully in their marketplace.??? ( Sam Brook, 2009)
Wal-Mart as a multinational corporation has simultaneously moving its innovation and growth from many aspects in order to step up the pace of rapid changing environment. Thus, why and how Wal-Mart could have established its current international presence could be examined by it driving forces that support the growth and innovation process which will be discuss below.Wal-Mart??™s Culture and Policy
First of all, what are the basic belief and value that pushing Wal-Mart to its current international presence What are the intangible factors that making Wal-Mart so extraordinary successful In fact, the answer will definitely be the underlying culture and policies of Wal-Mart, which are actually one of most important pillars that support their growth and innovation by providing them a clear direction. Consequently, Wal-Mart culture and policy are strongly lies on Sam Walton beliefs and values which can be concluded as:
* Respecting every individual
* Exceeding customers expectation
* learning continuously, striving for excellence, and embracing changes
Moreover, Wal-Mart culture had strongly been disseminated and influencing every aspect of their business practice and operation while this could be examined by the underlying culture on their employees, customers and organization which will be discuss below. ???Family Organization Culture???
Firstly, Wal-Mart basic belief that based on ???respecting every individual??? had generated a ???family organization culture??? toward their employees globally. Based on this culture, they tend to give their employees a feeling of working as a family. For example, several policies that had been generated such the ???profit-sharing programme??™ in Mexico are allowing their employees to buy shares of the store they working at with a discount price. Another example is the ???Open door??? policy that implemented globally gives their employees the opportunity to share their suggestion, opinion, ideas and voice concern as well as the different version of ???Wal-Mart cheers??? that adjusting according to different country.
Lastly, those policies are actually helps to maximize their employee??™s commitment and are helping Wal-Mart to solve many internal business process problems as well as generating some greatest ideas for Wal-Mart to ensure the continuous growth in international market.???Customers first Culture???
Another basic belief of Wal-Mart is ???exceeding customer??™s expectation??? which had generated the ???Customers first Culture???. Based on this culture, Wal-Mart had also generated several policies towards their customer, for example, ???10 foot rule??? which employees are encouraged to ask if they need any help, greet them and look at their eye whenever customers come near within 10 feet, which are giving a sense of friendly to shop in Wal-Mart. Another most common and famous policy is the ???always commit to low price??? which has help Wal-Mart to keep up their effort to provide low price products and services to their customers.
Thus, these policies and culture are actually helping Wal-Mart in keeping their customers loyalty and attracting more customers globally. ???Company innovation Culture???
The third basic belief which is ???learning continuously, striving for excellence, and embracing changes??? are being one of the main roots that keeping Wal-Mart continuously growth. By adhering to this culture, Wal-Mart had continuously looking for a breakthrough in terms of their business practices. For example, Wal-Mart future plan included opening a new bank and providing several more store concept. This could actually help to formulate a new direction for their growth and a better way to do things in order to serve their global customers better as well as being more competitive. Technological Business Practices
Secondly, (Troot, 2005), a management expertise also had mentioned that ???one of the most essential factors nowadays that facilitating the innovation process of the multinational organization is the commitment to technology.??™ In the early stage, Wal-Mart are realizing that as being an ???aggressive??? retailing company, it??™s essential to enhance the efficiency of their entire business process which would ease their expansion national and internationally as well as cutting down their operation cost in order to provide low cost products to their customers. Thus, most of their early capital had been invested on technology in terms of their logistic and information system.Supply Chain System:
Specifically, Wal-Mart had link its logistic system closely to their information system in order to enhance the efficiency in their supply chain and communication system. In this way, their satellites and pull system is a good example of their innovation results. Those sophisticated computer and satellites systems allow them to share and process massive of customers purchasing and inventory data among their distribution center, headquarters and suppliers which enable Wal-Mart to ship the right products to the right stores at the right time and correct quantity with the lowest cost.Organization Vigilance System:
Additionally, apart from supply chain system, their strong information system is also acting as the vigilance system that helping Wal-Mart to keep aware on their external environment which could also enables them to collect valuable information from it. By using that valuable information, Wal-Mart could then make a critical decision on their business process. For example, the information system that called ???pull system??? allows them to track their customers purchasing pattern. By understanding the customers??™ purchasing pattern, their manufacturers could get a clearer command on what products are Wal-Mart selling daily which enable them to avoid twin dangerous of producing surplus products that are not selling or too little products in heavy demand. Another example is their satellites system that enables their top management to monitor their external environment while controlling over their entire business process globally by just sitting in the control room. Thus, most valuable information such as their customers purchasing pattern and population data that collected from their external environment could then being analyze by their sophisticated information system in order to ease their global expansion by knowing what model of store is suitable and which best product and services is best to be provided.
Lastly, Wal-Mart that had emphasized more in term of technology than its competitors is making them having more competitive advantage through its speed, scale and simplicity on the international market. Global Market Adaptability
The third issue to be examined is the adaptability of Wal-Mart. In this way, adaptability of an organization can be simply explained as the ability of an organization to fit into their business environment. In order to understand why and how Wal-Mart had established its current international presence, it??™s essential to examine how Wal-Mart had adapted to their global market. Furthermore, how Wal-Mart had adapted to global market could be examined through four basic elements which are their entry mode, business practices, expansion strategic and the adaptability to worldwide economics.Adaptability to worldwide economics:
As largest retailing companies in the world, Wal-Mart realized that in order to be competitive, they must understand the way to lower down their products cost. Back to the latter of 20 Century, with the developing of many Asian country such China with its fast developing in manufacturing country had made Wal-Mart realized that they could take this advantages to optimize their product cost. Hence, Wal-Mart is taking their products from their suppliers that located globally with more than 18 countries in recent years. By understanding well the worldwide economics, they could know that which country having best resources to produce which particular products with high quality and a lower price.
Lastly, by adapted to worldwide economic, Wal-Mart could also build up a strong network with their suppliers and manufacturers around the world with the capability to imports and provide different range of products to different countries with a lowest price and better quality.Expansion strategic:
Another issue to examine how Wal-Mart has adapted to its current international position will be lying on its expansion strategic. In this way, Wal-Mart and its competitors are actually using the different approaches to enter market.
Consequently, Wal-Mart is exploited the economics of density as their expansion strategic. Unlike their competitors which is Carrefour and Tesco, Wal-Mart normally started their expansion in the rural places before entering the high population, by doing so, Wal-Mart are actually gaining an opportunity to build up their strength and refine skills before they entering higher population and more competitive market. They will then opening stores close to each other while slowly moving from less population area to the high density area like big cities. However, this expansion strategic is actually more systematically and strategically and at the meantime easing Wal-Mart distribution, cutting cost in advertisement and facilitating their training due to the density of their stores.
Thus, their expansion strategic are actually making them more adaptable to the global market while this might be one of the reasons why Wal-Mart owing more branches internationally than its competitors because they are being well-prepared in terms of more understanding in the customers purchasing pattern and preferences comparing to Tesco and Carrefour expansion strategic which they will typically chosen to open their store firstly on high population area. Entry Mode:
Moreover, Wal-Mart also aware that chosen the appropriate entry mode is essential for their expansion in the global market because they are adapting a strange market and culture.
Admittedly, the entry mode that mainly be used by Wal-Mart based on acquisition and merger and partly on FDI and joint venture due to the different countries policies and culture. The main reason why Wal-Mart takes acquisition and merger as their main entry mode is firstly due to their strong financial power to buy the stake of others company. Secondly, acquisition and merger is actually allowing Wal-Mart avoiding the barrier to entry the market with faster assesses into one other culture and customers buying pattern which will ease and fasten their expansion. For example, the acquisition of Seiyu in Japan; the merger of Wal-Mart with Asda which are the third largest retailing company in UK in year 1999, and had currently became the second largest retailing company in UK with its growth from 46stores to 542 stores today.
Another example is Wal-Mart in Mexico which they had to choose joint venture other than acquisition due to the protection of Nation Corporation by their government, Wal-Mart had joint venture with Citra, one of the leading retailing companies in Mexico and had now successful to open 1,932 stores there.
Lastly, we can see that Wal-Mart had chosen a faster way to be adapted to the global market by acquisition and merger because they realized that speed of expansion is a competitive advantages in the international market rather than other types of entry mode such as foreign direct investment which will be slowing down their adaptability to the market since they have to start everything from zero.

Business Practices:
In order to be adapted to the certain market and business environment, Wal-Mart also understood that it??™s essential to provide different range of products and services as well as their business model in order to suit the different demand and size of the market.
Consequently, in order to suit the market size, Wal-Mart has continuously developed different stores concept such as Wal-Mart supermarket, Sam Walton Club and Wal-Mart Express. For example, Sam Walton Club had open up a niche market for Wal-Mart which it is a combination of discount store and supplier. This store normally opens in the area that is surrounded by many small businesses because they are selling large quantities of goods and is good to act as a supplier to small business. Another example is Wal-Mart express which is a small discount store that providing a range of products from simple grocery shopping to even gasoline service while this store concept is focusing on the smaller towns that are unable to support a larger store.
In terms of services, Wal-Mart had also provided different range of services according to the customer purchasing pattern and market. For example, in certain area, Wal-Mart had launch a range of services such as their MoneyCenters, Wal-Mart Credit Card, Pharmacy service centers and e-buying to convenient customers from buying their products as well as helping their customer to save money.
In terms of products, Wal-Mart had provided different range of products to suit their business environment and customers??™ preference. For example, in the business environment that surrounded by agriculture industries, Wal-Mart will set up a department in their store that specifically selling some agriculture products while in the environment with high population, Wal-Mart will then set up lots of department to sell different range of products such as groceries, books to medicines products.
Lastly, the high adaptability in business practice from Wal-Mart could actually fulfill the different demand and preferences of their global customer which will be vary due to the different culture and living standard. Unlike K-Mart, which is one of the main competitors of Wal-Mart in the early stage has now facing the bankruptcy due to the low adaptability to the rapid change environment.
Conclusion
Wal-Mart today is still being energetic in its current international presence with its continuous growth which could be seen from its current corporate image and annual sales. After the discussion and examination above, we could conclude that Wal-Mart is actually gaining their international position through its culture, technological business practice and strong adaptability. Firstly, with its culture that acting as an intangible value of Wal-Mart is making them being able to formulate a clearer direction for its growth and innovation. Secondly, with their technological business practice, Wal-Mart is capable to expand strategically and systematically on their scale while at the meantime reducing the entry barriers and streamline the complicated issues in their business process globally. Lastly, with their strong adaptability, Wal-Mart is being able to continuously tailor their business practices and management system to suit the rapid changing environment of the international market. Consequently, those three values are also acting as the characteristics why Wal-Mart being so competitive in their current international presence while overcoming the threats of their competitors.
Last but not least, those three values will definitely sustaining Wal-Mart current international presence while driving Wal-Mart to a breakthrough point in terms of their innovation and growth. References
1. Angela da Rocha and Luis Antonio Dib (2002), ???The entry of Wal-Mart in Brazil and the competitive responses of multinational and domestic firms??™, International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, Vol.30, No.1, pp.61-73 2. Charles fishman peguin (2007), The Wal-Mart Effect- How an out-of-town superstore became a superpower, England, Clays Ltd, St.Ives plc 3. Carl H. Tong and Lee-Ing Tong (2006), ???Exploring the cornerstones of Wal-Mart success and competitiveness??™, Vol.16, No.2 4. Enrico Colla and Marc Dupuis (2002), ???Research and managerialissues on global retail competition: Carrefour/ Wal-Mart??™, International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, Vol.30, No.2, pp.103-111 5. Enrico Colla and Marc Dupuis (2002), ???Research and managerialissues on global retail competition: Carrefour/ Wal-Mart??™, International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, Vol.30, No.2, pp.103-111 6. Emek Basker (2007), ???The Causes and Consequences of Wal-Mart??™s Growth??™, Journal of Economic Perspectives, Vol.21, No.3, pp.177-198 7. Lichtenstein, NelsonView (2005), ???WAL-MART AND THE NEW WORLD ORDER; A Template for Twenty-First Century Capitalism??™, The City University of New York on behalf of the Murphy Institute for Worker Education and Labor Studies, Vol. 14, pp.21 8. Management practices of Wal-Mart [Online], Available: http://ivythesis.typepad.com/term_paper_topics/2007/10/management-part.html 9. Richard B. Freeman and Alice O. (2011), ???Wal-Mart innovation and productivity: a viewpoint, Canadian Journal of Economics, Vol.44, No.2, May, pp.468-508. 10. Stanley D. Brunn (2006), Wal-Mart World, London, Taylor & Francis Group 11. Tim Hannagan (2008), Management Concepts & Practices- Fifth edition, Edinburgh, Pearson Education Limited. 12. Wal-Mart Homepage [Online], Available: http://walmartstores.com/aboutus/297.aspx 13. ???Wal-Mart, Tesco and Carrefour do battle in the East??™, Emerald Group Publishing Limited, Vol.24, No.2, pp.5-7. 14. Wal-Mart self branding [Online], Available: http://www.brandingstrategyinsider.com/2009/03/a-walmart-brand-for-the-ages.html 15. Wal-Mart future investment [Online], Available: http://investors.walmartstores.com/phoenix.zhtmlc=112761&p=irol-newsArticle&ID=1345359&highlight 16. Wal-Mart stores concept [Online], Available: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Walmart#Walmart_Supercenter 17. Wal-Mart in Japan [Online], Available: http://www.businessweek.com/magazine/content/05_09/b3922073.htm 18. Wal-Mart failure in Japan [Online], Available: http://money.cnn.com/magazines/fortune/fortune_archive/2007/08/06/100141311/index.htm

Cost and Revenue Curves

The Cost and revenue Curve simulation suggest that John maximizes Farm Fresh Orange Juice Company??™s profit by using the knowledge he has acquired over the years about cost, revenues, and their interrelationship. After being appointed Chief Operating Officers (COO) John??™s operating team considered moving production to one of following states California, Texas, or Florida. Before, he made a selection he and his team weighed there opportunity cost by comparing and contrasting the citrus industry in the three states.
Marginal and average cost curve are very similar in California, Texas and Florida, but in other southern subtropical states costs is lower. Initially, the COO thought that the optimal production site for Farm Fresh was in California, he believed that the state was primed for citrus production. However, when he and his team began researching the area, there were some-things that concerned them. Producing delicious tasting orange juice and distributing it to the masses is how F.F.O.J. makes it money, and California has some issues that may hinder production. The current state of the citrus industry, weather, and commerce, played a valuable part in the COO decision.
California is nationally known for possessing a good citrus industry that produces over 1.6 billion dollars a year. San Diego leads the state in orange juice production, and houses the largest concentration of organic farmers in the state. However, their citrus industry is being affected by the Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), which has ravaged orchards in Southern California. ACP is a pest that acts as a carrier or vector spreading “huanglongbing” (HLB), a devastating disease of citrus trees. This bacterial disease is transmitted to healthy trees by the psyllid after it feeds on infected plant tissue (CDFA, 2010). This particular pest, which comes from neighboring Tijuana, Mexico, is a hazard to all California citrus growers.
Weather also played a major factor in the COO??™s decision. Although he believes that the optimum state may be California. Research showed most citrus companies in the state must divest there interests into other states, and regions to ensure that they are not utterly affected by a pessimistic growing seasons. Successful companies in the state do a great job of balancing past and future weather patterns, enabling them to make provisions without effecting production.
While balancing weather and a troubled industry the COO also noticed that California taxes are very high, and commerce in the state was greatly affected by the recession. Conversely, Texas and Florida are major business states that provide an abundance of tax cuts to companies aiding commerce in their states. John and his staff understood the importance of the above factors for they are key in deciding how and where they should do business.
Commercial citrus production in Texas has been fairly good, but future production is in limbo. It recently has been limited to the Lower Rio Grand Valle. Production in Beeville, Beaumont, Carrizo Springs, Falfurrias, Houston, and Orange County have become wane because of the economy and reoccurring freezes. In addition the company worried about the possible spread ACP. Texas and Mexico are relatively close and the risk was far greater than what the company wished to chance.
Knowing that citrus trees are subtropical to tropical in nature; the COO and his team decided to move production to Florida. Although the market is extremely competitive and has a low barrier of entry, Florida was the most attractive after weighing the opportunity cost. In January 2005, Farm Fresh Orange Juice maximized there profits when marginal cost (MC) equaled marginal revenue (MR) producing 100,000 tons of orange juice at an average cost (ATC) of 25.29 a ton averaging 4.71 a unit. However, the COO pushed his company to produce an additional 10,000 tons at an ATC of 26.19 a unit resulting in a profit of 3.81 a unit totaling 4.19. Despite the .9% hike in total cost from 100,000 to 110,000 the COO and his operating team where pleased with their projections.
Shortly thereafter, they witnessed a drop in orange prices during the month of July. The drop in pricing impacted their decision by boosting their confidence, and instantly maximizing their profits. After pushing his team to produce an extra 10,000 tons the COO looks like an economic genius. The ATC of orange juice dropped to 22.39 a unit resulting in 7.61 profit totaling 8.37. The drop in pricing is projected to linger throughout the fiscal year. Farm Fresh should continue to see a substantial profit throughout the year. In an effort to repeat their latest success Farm Fresh Orange Juice produced another 10,000 tons totaling 120,000. The ATC was set 23.48, giving the company 6.51 per unit equally 782 in total profits. The drop in orange prices forced the company to have new cost structures, and they were fortunate to capitalize on them.
In 2008 production began to take a turn for the worse. Heavy competition over the past few years from South American manufactures has brought down the market price of orange juice because these manufacturers enjoy a cost advantage due to there production outside of this country (Cost and Revenue Curves Simulation, 2010). 2008 proved to be the year that competition loomed high. The COO decided to place Fresh Farm Orange Juice in a short term shut down there marginal cost began exceeding there marginal revenue. The company recorded a total profit of negative 323.
However, entities like Fresh Farm Orange Juice can shut down in the short term, until the market price is high enough to cover its average variable cost (AVC). In competitive markets like the citrus industry, the short term shut down could last a few months. Yet the firm the COO was persistent in shortening this time by examining all the factors that make up marginal costs. He and his team explored cost cutting, by temporarily cutting pay, reevaluating their maintenance schedules, and avidly discussing lower prices with farmers to minimize the cost of production per unit. The COO also discussed branding their product to gin customer value in an effort to increase price, and raise revenue to or above marginal costs. They also explored lowering the average cost per unit of production by seeking technological improvements. They even ponder about manufacturing and distributing other types of juices like apples, pineapples, grapes, and other fruits people enjoy.
Nevertheless, Florida showed why the COO elected to do business in the state. They offered a tax cut that decreased manufacturing cost. The tax cut was deemed as good, but it was not enough to get the company rolling again.
By the year of 2011 orange juice lost some of its popularity as other fruit juices like apples, pineapples, and grapes satisfied the masses. The anti dumping legislation forced South American competition out of the market due to disclosed violations, giving Farm Fresh Orange Juice an opportunity to reinvent there product. They immediately reopened production and produce a quantity of 100,000. Averaging 21.73 in total cost and 23.00 in total revenue the company maximized their profits at 127.
In conclusion, the COO Fresh Farm Orange Juice went against the optimal choice of the simulation, and did an exceptional job. During the first half of 2005 Fresh farm produced more than the optimal choice, even though FFOJ maximized their profit they were outgained by 52 points. The second half of 2005 virtually mirrored the first half of 2005. In 2008 both shutdown production in the first half of the year, but the optimal choice continued production in the second half of the year and FFOJ did not. In 2011 both sides maximized profits by producing 100,000 tons of juice recording profits 127.
To resolve future challenges Fresh Farm may face, they should continue production in the short ??“ run. This perhaps may the best way to reduce labor cost, and keep a handle on other variable resources. Furthermore, they must seek alternative uses for their production equipment. Producing other fruit juices will expand their market and increase revenue. Fresh Farm Orange Juice should reanalyze their demand and supply curves; consider broader revenue concepts and consider various profit possibilities for their organization.

How to

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Microsoft Office 2007 |
How-To of Microsoft Office 2007 |
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8/8/2007 |Table of Contents
Using this Manual 10
Disclaimer 10
Table of Contents 10
Changes/Modifications 10
Print 10
Microsoft Office Word 2007 11
Help 11
Toolbars 11
File Toolbar 11
Create a New Document 12
Open 13
Save 14
A New Document 14
An Existing Document 14
Save As 14
Print 15
Quick Access Toolbar 16
Add Items to Quick Access Toolbar 16
Create a New Document 18
Open 18
Save 18
A New Document 18
An Existing Document 19
Tabs 19
Home Tab 19
Clipboard 20
Font 20
Paragraph 20
Styles 20
Editing 21
Insert Tab 21
Pages 21
Tables 22
Illustrations 22
Links 22
Header & Footer 22
Text 23
Symbols 23
Page Layout Tab 23
Themes 23
Page Setup 24
Page Background 24
Paragraph 24
Arrange 25
References Tab 25
Table of Contents 25
Footnotes 25
Citations & Bibliography 26
Captions 26
Index 26
Table of Authorities 27
Mailings Tab 27
Create 27
Start Mail Merge 27
Write & Insert Fields 28
Preview Results 28
Finish 28
Review Tab 29
Proofing 29
Comments 29
Tracking 30
Changes 30
Compare 30
Protect 31
View Tab 31
Document Views 31
Show/Hide 31
Zoom 32
Window 32
Macros 32
Add-Ins Tab 33
Menu Commands 33
Pictures 33
Accessing the Format Tab 33
Format Tab 33
Adjust 33
Picture Styles 34
Arrange 34
Size 34
Microsoft Office Excel 2007 35
Help 35
Toolbars 35
File Toolbar 35
Quick Access Toolbar 36
Add Items to Quick Access Toolbar 36
Tabs 38
Home Tab 38
Clipboard 38
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Insert Tab 40
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Outline 47
Review Tab 47
Proofing 47
Comments 48
Changes 48
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Workbook Views 49
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Zoom 49
Window 50
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Menu Commands 51
Microsoft Office PowerPoint 2007 51
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Microsoft Office Access 2007 66
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Gridlines 80
Controls 80
AutoFormat 80Using this Manual
Please read the Disclaimer before using the information in this manual.
Disclaimer
While every reasonable precaution has been taken in the preparation of this document, neither the author nor Allen University assumes responsibility for damages resulting from the use of the information contained herein.The information contained in this document is believed to be accurate. However, no guarantee is provided.Use the information provided in this manual at your own risk.
Table of Contents
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* Alternative textMicrosoft Office Excel 2007
Help
To access Help, click the in the top right-hand corner of the Microsoft Office Excel 2007 screen.The Excel Help box will open. Enter the search criteria.Toolbars
File Toolbar
The File menu allows you to create a new workbook, open an existing workbook, save a workbook, print a workbook, prepare a workbook, send a workbook, publish a workbook, or close a workbook. A list of your recent documents will be displayed. Also, you can set Excel Options and Exit Excel.
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Coso Plan Adoption

COSO Plan Adoption
The most powerful recommendation from the readings and research is every company should have Enterprise Risk Management (ERM). The Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (COSO) provides instructions for startup of ERM. It gives guidance; however, it does not provide steps for implementation. These three steps have been successful: 1) keys to success, 2) initial action steps, and 3) continuing ERM implementation (Steinbeg, 2011, pg. 36).
According to COSO, ???enterprise risk management is a process, affected by an entity??™s board of directors, management, and other personnel. It is designed to identify potential events that may affect the entity, and manage risk to be within the risk appetite. Also it provides reasonable assurance regarding the achievement of entity objectives??? (Beasley, Branson, & Hancock, 2010, pg. III). Companies need to embrace ERM to help avoid business risks and determine how much risk it can handle.
Risk oversight of an organization is highly important. It could make or break the organization. Risk oversight involves the organization??™s board of directors overseeing management to ensure they have a process of monitoring risks and updating that process. Management along with the board of directors must have an understanding of the amount of risk the organization will pursue to have an effective process. Two steps to avoid risk oversight are reporting regularly on its process and agreeing with management on the type of risks recognized as high priority.
A COSO ERM Framework survey was conducted with 460 people responding. It was found that most companies??™ ERM process still needs some or much work, and he or she was dissatisfied with their risk oversight system. Although top level of management is communicating, there is lack of structure and road maps for implementation (Beasley, Branson, & Hancock, 2010). The respondents stated that they needed more instructions on implementing ERM. Their organization knew how to follow the steps to begin the process; however, it needed the steps to implement ERM.
ERM is a process that organizations may need. After reading the different discussions on ERM from COSO, it is determined that following the three steps to get the organization on the right path to implement ERM, is well worth any organization??™s success. According to COSO, ???The three steps, keys to success, initial action steps, and continuing ERM implementation include making sure top management is in agreement, choosing someone to be a good leader to start the process, and making sure risk management is updated on a periodic base.??? ERM is the foundation of a successful organization.

References
Beasley, M. S., Branson, B.C., Hancock, B. V. (2010). COSO??™s 2010 Report on ERM. Retrieved
from http://coso.org.
Beasley, M. S., Branson, B.C., Hancock, B. V. (2010). Developing Key Risk Indicators to
Strengthen Enterprise Risk Management. Retrieved from http://coso.org.
Steinberg, R. M. (2011). Using the New COSO Risk-Management Guidance. Compliance Week,
8(86), 36-37. Retrieved from the University of Phoenix, LAW531 ??“ Business Law course website.

Cosmetics and the 5 Senses

Cosmetics and the 5 senses : Perception & Description
Agnes Giboreau [email protected] Your contact: Helene AZOEUF, Sensory Dpt Director [email protected] Tel +33 169 534 302www.adriant.com1The questions addressed today
Introduction
Why controlling sensory properties in cosmeticsBiology
How does the body reply to the cosmetic worldLanguage
What kind of words are cosmetic sensory attributesDescription
How to define attributes for cosmetics descriptionConclusion2 Introduction3Why paying attention to sensory in cosmetics
Cosmetics
Appearance of the pack Consumers are emotionally attached to their cosmetics Sensory characteristics could create an emotional link between the consumer and the product / packaging :
Optimisation of the sensory characteristics of the product / the packMaterialPerfume
Positive stimulation of one or many sensesTaste of the lipstick Sound while closingIncrease the perceived quality of the product and its emotional content
4 Why controlling sensory characteristics in cosmeticsFacing the high demand of the cosmetic industry to base the marketing mix on sensations??¦ It is necessary to know how to control sensory characteristicsSensory descriptive studies represent the most useful and the most used tool to achieve such a control.5The solution: Sensory descriptive methods
Objectives :
Measuring all sensations a product provides to a consumer at various stages of usage all along the product life Considering the link to consumer liking, sensory profile is used : For a watch on competition To know consumers??™ expectations through sensory strengths and weaknesses To define the sensory optimum profile
6 Biology
How does the body reply to the world7How defining a sense A “sense” is a faculty by which outside stimuli are perceived. SENSE (broadly acceptable definition )
“a system that consists of a sensory cell type (or group of cell types) that respond to a specific kind of physical energy, and that correspond to a defined region (or group of regions) within the brain where the signals are received and interpreted.”
(Source: Wikepedia)8 Sensory receptor
Structure that recognizes a stimulus in the internal or external environment of an organism.Smell & Taste : chemical receptors activated by interacting with the moleculeSight : Photoreceptors transducing the physical energy of light into electrical signals.Touch & Hearing : Mechanoreceptors responding to physical stimuli when membranes are physically stretched.9Sight
Certainly the most important sense as being the source of information for most instinctive action The most immediate sense The one that drives all other perceptions Appearance directly linked to symbolic interpretationAnd in cosmetics
Many visual characteristics of both consumption and liking.PACK andPRODUCT are involved in consumer choice,10 Hearing
Also a crucial sense as it is the main channel to oral communication, essential human activity Sound environment : central in human well-being Acoustic stimuli perceived from their source, their function, or a specific causal eventAnd in cosmetics
The main issue concerns the PACK: Sound produced while opening and closing ??¦ But also the hair or skinPRODUCT: hand interaction with
11Olfaction
The third distal sense Hardly recognized by consumers and implicitly memorised Highly linked to emotion Strongly influences mood and individual judgmentAnd in cosmetics
Large role in cosmetics Reinforcement of the liking level of a given product or a given brand In luxury brands or personal care : symbolic impact sometimes as high as a visual property
12 Touch
Proximal sense, needing contact.Tact
SkinKinesthesia
Muscles and bonesThermal captors
Heat transfersPain sensations
Trigeminal nerveAnd in cosmetics
Major sense for cosmetics products : Graal softness, packaging handling, skin-hair-body contact, hand perception and so on.13Taste
Intimate sense In-mouth sensations Taste buds only responds to water soluble compounds, salts, acids sugars, peptides.. BUT : In the consumer mind : also refers to other sensations occurring in-mouth : aroma (through retronasal perception : strawberry, vanilla) & mouthfeel sensations.And in cosmetics
Critical for Oral care and lip sticks14 Language What kind of words are sensory attributes for cosmetics15Linguistic ressources
What linguistics resources are available to describe sensations
-Morphology (lexical form):Noun, adjective, verb or constructed form -Semantics (meaning)Focus on the object or on the subject16 Sensory adjectives
Adjectives
A lot specific sensory adjectives
Vision : e.g. dark, small, rough, green.. Somesthesia : e.g. heavy, tough, thick,
smooth, harsh..Less specific sensory adjectives
Taste: e.g. bitter, acid Audition: e.g. loudNo specific sensory adjectives
Smell: No specific sensory adjectives in olfaction.17Sensory nouns and verbs
Nouns :
-Exist for all sensory modalities- Can refer to different levels of conceptual elaboration of the stimulation -e.g. lemon smell, velvet touch
Nominal adjective: e.g. fruityVerbs :
-Encountered in all fields Related to the effect of stimuli on the subject = effectas well as to the impact of subject actions to produce sensations in an interactive process with the object = usage
Verbal adjectives: e.g. tingling, resistant,18 Linguistic resources for sensory cosmetics
Morphology
Sight Simple adjectives ++ color, shape, size, texture ++ source, concept + light, effect Hearing + sharpness, clarity, loudness ++ source, concept + effect, sound making Smell 0 Touch ++ substance, Texture Taste +Nouns, nominal adjectives Verbs, verbal adjectives++ source, concept + effect++ source, concept + gesture, effect, usage++ source, concept + effectSemantics
– Object descriptions – Subject feelings19What is the best form for a sensory attributeIts function To provide a certain value (= quantification ) of a given quality (=property).Preferred form: Adjectives Adjectival form constructed on nouns or verbs20 Description How to define attributes for cosmetic products21What does ???trained panel??? mean
12 or 15 subjects Recruitment : Recruited on
motivation, availability, logical, scaling abilities, sensory general sensitivityTraining (10-50 hours) :
(1) General sensory knowledge (2) Attribute generation & selection (3) Attributes??™ learningOnce trained, the panel is able to measure sensory characteristics of products.
22 Training
A. Descriptors generation
Wide range of products representing the products on the market Individual work : description of the perception for each product Debriefing with all the panelists in order to group the generated descriptors.B. Training on sensory characteristics
Once the list of attributes is worked out the group goes through: – the recognition of the attributes, – the quantification of the intensity of the attributes on a structured scale
At the end of this training, the panelists are able to recognize and describe the sensations composing these products.+ Checking of the panel performances
(sensitivity, homogeneity and repeatability)C. Scaling : Test of the products
23How to select attributes
-?«discriminate non redundant relate to consumer acceptance/rejection relate to instrumental or physical measurements singular precise and reliable consensus on meaning unambiguous reference easy to obtain communicate relate to reality?»
(Source: Lawless & Heymann, 1998)24 How to write definitions
-?«be lexically homogeneous (the definition of an adjective starts with an adjective or a pronoun Avoid circularity as it brings no information (same etymological family) Favor description: analogy, paraphrases, synonyms, antonyms (explicit information, complement of the attribute) Illustrate with reference to products as a complement and specification of the definition (example)?»—(Source: Giboreau et al., 2006, Fd Qual & Pref)25Example of sensory attributes : Essenso Cosmetics
Attribute Definition Which moves easily in the cup Producing a long and thin ribbon Which does not oppose resistance to cover the skin Protocole Bend the cup to allow the product to flow and observe the product movement Press a small amount of sample between forefinger and thumb and gently separate fingers Spread a small amount of sample within a 4cm diameter area on the forearm and evaluate while applying Spread a small amount of sample within a 4cm diameter area on the forearm and evaluate the sensation after 3 rounds. Gently touch the skin with 3 fingers and remove handIn the cupFluidAt pick upThreadingEasy to spread At application GreasyWhich reminds the texture of butterSticky 2 min after application ThickThat needs strength to remove fingers Which leaves a heavy residual filmStroke the skin with the whole hand26 Sensory profile9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1Creme A Creme Bfluidefermefilantfacile a etalerfraisaqueuxgrasfacile a f. peau film penetrer collante residuel27Conclusion28 Conclusion
The 5 senses
All 5 senses are involved in cosmetic industries. The importance of each sense depends on the product type, with a large impact of usage conditions.The methods
The sensory know-how coming from Food Sciences and statistics has been successfully transferred to cosmetic areas. Psycho-linguistics know-how allowed fine tuning of descriptor lists and definitions. Current methods show good performances.The cosmetic applications
Wide range of applications from Quality control, to R&D and Marketing projects29Thank you for your attention
Any questionwww.adriant.com
30

How to Write an Executive Summary

How to Write an Executive SummaryBy eHow Business Editor
Time to simplify that big report
An executive summary previews the main points of an in-depth report; it is written for nontechnical people who dont have time to read the main report. The executive report contains enough information for a reader to get familiarized with what is discussed in the full report without having to read it. Here is how you write an executive report.Things You Will Need: ??? Thesauri
??? Dictionaries
??? Primary source of material ??“ usually text if academic paper
Step 1:
Plan to create a summary each time you write a business report exceeding four pages. Write the summary after you write the main report, and make sure it is no more than 1/10 the length of the main report. Start the Executive Summary with a short purpose statement ??“ why you wrote the report itself, and what will be addressed in the report. Finish with a summary and/or recommendations
Step 2:
List the main points the summary will cover in the same order they appear in the main report
Step 3:
Write simple declarative sentences for each of the main points. No personal pronouns used.
Step 4:
Add supporting or explanatory sentences as needed, avoiding jargon. (know your audience)
Step 5:
Read the summary slowly and critically, making sure it conveys your purpose, message and key recommendations. You want readers to be able to skim the summary without missing the point of the main report.
Step 6:
Check for errors of style, spelling, grammar and punctuation. Ask a fellow writer to proofread and edit the document. Cite or attribute all intellectual material used ??“ no References page needed.
Step 7:
Ask a nontechnical person – for example, your parents or your spouse – to read the document. If it confuses or bores them, the summary probably will have the same effect on intended readers.

How to Write an Essay

? Referencing – it is important. If there wasnt sufficient referencing in your essays, you will have had some comments to that effect and some places where you might have put a reference will have been pointed out. Remember, someone has written their ideas down and they deserve credit for having those ideas. Note the format too, I will have given examples where appropriate.
? When making a point in this essay, it was important to link it back to the materials – it was expected. So if you write about, say, traffic signs, you can mention the same in City Road … and give the reference. That linkage is very important. In future essays, you will be linking points back to theories so its a good idea to get used to it now.
? Use the terminology. Quite a few described things that were recognisable as difference or making and remaking but didnt mention the term(s). Generally, where the terms werent used the linkage didnt show up either. Both are important.
? Be wary of going west – leaving the context of the essay and striking out to pastures new. Theres no marks there. Everything you write must be relevant to the question asked. For example, if you described items in a particular shop window, it wasnt relevant to differences and inequalities being made and remade.
? Writing to length … I was surprised at how many pieces were short. The word count is set so that a good concise writer can get in all the relevant material/ideas in the space allowed. If you write, say, 80% of the words … even if you are that good concise writer you are guaranteed to have missed something out and, thus, may have forfeited 20% of the marks before the essay even gets to me.
? Then there are those who write in a less than concise manner. If you take twice as many words to say the same thing, you will also be forfeiting quite a few marks. So keep it short; keep it relevant.
? No questions in essays – I cant stress how annoying these are. Generally speaking, the writer asks a question that effectively means “So what do I/we think of this” and goes on to tell me what they think. Its rhetoric – pointless at the best of times. But consider this … if you are asking me questions, you are not telling me anything … and if you arent telling me anything, you are not attracting marks.
? Check your work. Write it, leave it a day or so and then re-read three times, if not more. That is how to produce good work.

Cosi

Cosi essayThe semi-autobiographical play cosi effectively portrays how the composer Louis nowra uses an array of symbols and themes that characters encounter throughout the play. Such as Lewis??™s transformation on his own perspective versus societies perspectives on the mentally ill throughout the play write or fidelity and infidelity symbolized through the play in a play of cosi fan tutte and compared with the Arabian phoenix. It is through these themes and symbols that Louis nowra illustrates the various challenges an individual faces in life to the audience.What would an example of a topic sentence for transformation be
Nowra uses the subject of creating a theatrical performance with an association of mental patients as the first challenge Lewis has to over come as he claims to his girlfriend Lucy that??? I am only doing this for the money???. Nowra uses this quote as a way of symbolize Lewis??™s isolation from the mental patients. As Lewis??™ transformation leads him to gradually learn to accept the mental patients his perspective helps the audience to transform their opinion on the mentally ill as well. This is done through the flickering of the fuse box, which becomes a symbol of Lewis??™s thoughts and feelings about the mentally ill are changing. In conjunction with this Lewis rhetorically asks himself ??? why cant I ever say no just leave. They are mad. Its madness??? this quote shows Lewis comparing the mentally ill who society claims to be ???mad??? to who himself noted as a ???normal??™ person in society, thinking ???mad??? thoughts. Cleverly depicting to the audience that challenges individuals face in life can cause them to feel madness and that the stereotypes mad by society are not always correct as anyone can show signs of madness. Therefore the audience comes to empathies with the mental patient for the conditions they face even though they are human beings.???Cosi fan tutte??™ meaning women are like that is a play about love and fidelity that Lewis and the mental patients are performing in cosi. By performing cosi fan tutte nowra effectively uses a binary opposite theme of fidelity and infidelity so the characters can express and explore their views and values on life??™s challenges of love to the audience. It is evident of Lewis??™s view on love through ??? love is not important nowadays???. Although his attitudes on love change throughout the play as Lucy??™s idea about ???free love??? conforms Lewis into believing that fidelity to your partner is ???important???. When Lewis discovers Lucy??™s betrayal, she waves aside his shock, defending that ???it is not as if we??™re married.??™ The revelation does indeed prove that Cosi Fan Tutte is correct in stating that, ???woman??™s constancy is like the Arabian Phoenix. Everyone swears it exists, but no one has seen it.??? Although the women in both Cosi Fan Tutte and Cosi are shown to be unfaithful, so are the men. While the men in Cosi Fan Tutte do not actively participate in adultery, they do fabricate their departure to the war and also disguise themselves as ???Albanians.??™ Their deception is also a betrayal to their wives. Meanwhile, Don Alfonso manipulates everyone. As seen in Cosi, Lewis is unfaithful to Lucy as he kisses Julie during rehearsals. Julie later reveals that she has a girlfriend who she would prefer to be with, confirming that both men and women are unfaithful in relationships. How can I refer this back to the audience What would their response be to thisNowra proposes the idea that ???madness??™ is not always a simple psychological or psychiatric diagnosis, but is sometimes a matter of perspective and judgment. It embodies a wholistic view of human behaviour rather than an attitude of diagnostics and labeling. Nowra uses the imagery of light and dark to show that the chaos associated with the confusion of sanity and insanity can be both frightening and liberating and control can sometimes be repressive. Light traditionally represents hope and clarity, in the opening scene ???it is pitch black inside the theater. A heavy door opens??¦ a chink of daylight enters??? suggest that Lewis is a symbolism of hope and sanity within the group. Opposed to this the chaos and confusion that erupts when the lights go out. However it is evident that this madness can be liberating at times as Julie and Lewis discover when they kiss ???passionately??™ in the darkness although they both have partners already. Nowra also creates characters that cross the boundaries between the contrasting ideas of sanity and insanity to highlight inconstancies in the mental health system. For example Lewis is shown to be ???crossing the line??™ as he stands by the patients and sides with cherry, although Doug started the fire ???im sorry??¦ it wont happen again??? or when he replaces Doug in the play. Other characters such as Ruth blur the line between sanity and insanity this is shown after leaving the asylum when Ruth becomes a ???time and motion expert??™ where her obsessive compulsiveness is an asset. Therefore this confusion between sanity and insanity changes the perspective of the audience in allowing them to relate to the characters in time in their lives where they have felt confusion between their own sanity and insanity.In conclusion Lewis nowra is able to depict through various themes, characters and symbols the different perspectives on the mentally ill. Further more nowra is able to generate a powerful response by changing the audiences perspective and views of challenges in life.