About admin

View all posts by admin

How to Treat Deep Overbites

DEEP OVERBITES: AETIOLOGY AND MANAGEMENTDefinitionThe incisor overbite (OB) is the vertical relationship of anterior teeth, and it describes the degree of overlap of these teeth. Normal overbite = upper incisors cover between 1/3 to ? of labial aspect of the lower incisors when viewed horizontally from the front.Deep overbite = Overlap of more than ? of the lower incisor crownsDeep OB can be present in any of the main categories of malocclusion; but is one of the main features of Class II Division 2 malocclusion.Incisors erupt towards their full potential and they tend to do so until they meet some form of hard or soft tissue resistance.AETIOLOGYDeep overbites result from a combination of genetic, environmental and local factors. Although they may be considered separately, many of them are interdependent. SKELETAL FACTORSVertical Relationship??? Decreased lower facial height
??? Low maxillary-mandibular planes angle
??? Shape of the mandible
??? Forward growth rotation of the mandible (orientates lower incisors more lingually)
??? Downward rotation of the mandibleAntero-posterior Relationship
??? Marked AP discrepancy = excessive overjet (could also be reverse OJ)
??? This may mean no contact between anterior teeth which continue to eruptTransverse
??? Where lower arch is very narrow (esp II Div 2s) a scissors bite situation may develop, thus producing a deepening of the bite anteriorly.SOFT TISSUE FACTORS??? Any abnormal behaviour or posture of the lips which prevenys teeth from occluding in their normal relationship may allow teeth to erupt beyond their normal level.
??? Especially a high lower lip line, covering more than just the incisal 2-3 mm of the upper incisors.
??? High circum-oral muscle activity and taut tissues
??? These factors tend to retrocline incisors
??? In II Div 1s, lower lip trap may procline the uppers, but tends to retrocline the lowers, and may contribute to a deep OBDENTOALVEOLAR FACTORSInter-incisal Angle
??? U & L incisor angles as they erupt will determine whether they occlude and achieve the ideal inter-incisal angle of around 130 degrees. Incisor Height
??? Incisors probably have a pre-determined limited potential for eruption. The direction of eruption (see above) is important; but also if nothing opposes this eruption, they continue to erupt until a deep OB develops.Dentoalveolar Compensation
??? In mild AP skeletal discrepancy cases, the upper incisors may compensate by becoming retroclined under the influence of soft tissues and function.Incisor Shape
??? The labio-lingual dimension (thickness) of upper incisors can be smaller than normal in many deep OB cases.
??? The diminution or absence of a cingulum plateau and a steep platal slope of the upper incisor crowns
??? Even if the roots are normal in inclination, sometimes a marked increased angle between the crown and the root of the upper incisorsLack of Posterior Support
??? Loss of deciduous teeth in children
??? Loss of permanent teeth due to excessive or wrong orthodontic extractions (extractions of more anterior teeth is more likely to deepen OB); or due to caries/periodontitis
??? HypodontiaTrauma
??? Lingual luxation of the upper labial segment during development
MANAGEMENTBefore any treatment you need to take a complete history and carry out thorough clinical and radiographic examinations. This will help diagnose the cause of the problem, and also assess the relative contribution of upper and lower incisors to it. The age of the patient must also be taken into consideration.INDICATIONS FOR TREATMENT
??? Poor appearance of teeth
??? Trauma or potential trauma to teeth and soft tissues
??? Poor functionAIMS
??? Reduction of overbite itself
??? Correction (reduction) of inter-incisal angle to 130 or even less. This is important for stability.
??? Correction of the ???edge-centroid relationship???. The lower incisor edges should ideally lie anterior to the centroids of the roots of the upper incisors. Thus further eruption is impeded and the OB stabilisedWAYS OF REDUCING OVERBITE IN GENERAL
??? Intrusion of incisors
??? Prevention of further ncisor eruption
??? Extrusion of posterior teeth
??? Encouragement of posterior growth rotation of mandible
??? Proclination of incisor crowns/ palatal root torque
??? Surgical movement of the skeletal bases
??? Any combination of the aboveMETHODS OF OVERBITE REDUCTION??? Usually non-extraction or extractions as far back as possible aids OB reduction, as you get more extrusion of posterior teeth, and less retraction of labial segments.SIMPLE REMOVABLE APPLIANCES??? Anterior biteplanes: prevention of eruption of lower incisors, possibly intrusion of lower incisors, encouragement of posterior eruption, encouragement of posterior growth rotation during growth
??? Z or T springs can procline upper incisors
??? Torquing springs can torque upper incisor roots palatallyFUNCTIONAL APPLIANCES??? Used in moderate to severe Class II skeletal growing patients
??? Separation of the posterior teeth and stretching of soft tissues promotes vertical/ posterior mandibular growth
??? Can incorporate proclining or torquing springs for incisorsFIXED APPLIANCES??? Various systems (Begg, Tip-Edge, Straight Wire, Bioprogressive, etc) have their own ways of reducing OB; but all rely on the same set of basic principles.
??? In most circumstances, it is desirable to over-correct the overbite reduction, and the reduction in the inter-incisal angle to ensure a more stable result.
??? In Begg treatment ???anchor bends??? of about 30 degrees are placed in front of the molar teeth; so that once the archwire is placed in molar tubes, the anterior part of the archwire lies close to the labial sulcus, and once brackets are engaged, there is an intrusive and bite opening force on the incisors.??? When reducing overbites in Bioprogressive/Segmental mechanics the molars are connected using a trans-palatal arch, anterior and posterior segments are aligned separately separately (sectional archwires), and then an additional ???utility arch??? is used to intrude the incisor teeth. The utility arch is usually made of 016×016 or 016×022 Blue Elgiloy for 018 slot systems, or 019×019 Blue Elgiloy for 022 systems. Molar anchor bends provide the intrusive force, while engagement of the archwire into the anterior (pre-adjusted) brackets intudes the upper incisors and torques their roots palatally. The posterior anchorage unit (TPA) prevents extrusion and distal tipping of the molars. TMA wire is an alternative to Blue Elgiloy. Another alternative is to keep the last sectional rectangular wire in the anterior brackets, and then ???lash??? (tie) the utility arch to the anterior segmental wire.??? With the Straightwire Appliance you tend to get an initial deepening of the overbite where distally-angulated canines are present. The incisors tend to extrude and tip forwards because the labial segment does not provide enough anchorage for the movement of the canine root. Canine lacebacks may help.
??? However, gradual progression through the sequence of AWs (from thins and flexible to thicker and stiffer) starts to reduce the overbite again. The incisors are proclined, their roots are torqued lingually/palatally, and there is also a combination of genuine and relative intrusion of the incisors too.
??? There is some extrsusion of the posterior teeth as the arches align, which is compensated by the vertical growth of the mandible and the alveolar processes (in the growing patient ??“ posterior rotation and increase in lower face height) which further reduces the overbite.
??? Including the second molars in the bond-up reinforces vertical anchorage, and helps flatten the Curve of Spee (COS).
??? Placing a reverse COS in the lower rectangular SS AW, and an accentuated COS in the the same wire for the upper arch, helps further OB reduction.
??? The use of elastics may extrude the posterior teeth further, but must make sure upper labial segment torque in maintained.
??? Bracket positioning may also help with OB reduction.MINI/ MICRO IMPALNTS??? Elastics or coils worn to anchor implants can help intrusion of incisors or extrusion of posterior teeth.ORTHOGNATHIC SURGERY
??? Used in a non-growing patient with a marked AP discrepancy.
??? Arches prepared by conventional orthodontics first
??? To allow proper anterior surgical movement of the mandible, decompensation may involve extractions to create an overjet before surgery.
??? Mandibular adnvancement corrects AP relationship.
??? A maxillary procedure may also be required to increase the vertical dimension and permit good interdigitation..
??? Segmental surgery may also be considered.STABILITY??? Over-correction
??? Appropriate mechanics
??? Permanent retention!


Noted pages: 20 – 25 44 – 48Cosi Is shapes by the decisions of significant characters. This id say is very true, Most if not all the characters had a part in shaping the play through their actions, the person that I personally think had the most Is have is the main protagonist of the play, Lewis, His actions vastly effect the direction that the play takes and not just that it also vastly effects his own perception of love and fidelity.
Lewis for starters was only doing this for the money and also hold stereotypical views (just like Nick and the rest) about mental patients. During early parts of the play Lewis has to confront some issues, for example the Fire, Lewis after this event could have easily canned the idea, collected his pay check and gone home. This was Lewiss first involuntary step on his inner journey because he chooses to lie to keep the production going. This decision is the foundation for his characters development. This not only effects him but effects everyone in the project, the patients for example in the long run the play helps and changes characters(HENRY) comes out of his shell and actually starts to talk and hold a small conversation with somebody, Not only Henry but Julie is also effected, At the end of the play she is released from the institution due to her drug obsession in the outside world subsiding, sadly this does not last and she dies in Sydney due to an overdose.
Choosing a side: Lewis in the play had to pick a side, it was The institution or Nicks moratorium, Lewis comes to see that all of the patients for all their “madness” are more worthwhile and beneficial than his friends so Lewis again stays with the play to get it finished. His inner journey leads Lewis to see that Nick is cruel, selfish and a hypocrite who calls Lewis a “mate” but is sleeping with his girlfriend behind his back. Choosing the play over the moratorium didnt sit well with nick and Lucy, they left and never returned, on the other hand this made Lewis a lot more free and able to walk his own walk and not live in Nicks shadow. Majority of the patients noticed the difference in Lewiss directing after Nick and Lucy left, they got on with the play and got it finished in time. In summary the play Cosi is undeniably shaped by its significant characters, Without Lewiss decisions the play would not even eventuate nor would the patients get the opportunity to express themselves in a play


In the play ???Cosi??™ by Louis Nowra there are many themes and issues explored. Two themes addressed are love and madness. Through characterisation, dialogue, setting and the contrast between mental patients and outsiders we are able to grasp the concept of these themes.
Louis Nowra gives many of the characters there own view about the importance of love. As the almost outsiders Lucy and Nick??™s opinions of love are quite cynical. ???Only mad people in this day and age would do a work about love and infidelity.??? Lucy believes ???love is an emotional indulgence for the privileged few.??? In contrast the patients have a much simpler view on love. As their views reflect onto Lewis as his ideas of love become important ???without love the world wouldn??™t mean much.???
Louis Nowra has characterised each patient to have their own definition of love. Doug confuses love and sex and is unable to express any real caring for anyone. He believes in free love ???make love not war, eh???
Roy??™s opinion of love is that ???love is what you feel when you don??™t have enough emotion left to hate…??? expressing that hate is a much more powerful emotion than love. ???we choose our enemies with greater care than our lovers…???
Julie believes that men expect women to behave in a certain way and, if they don??™t, men are judgemental of them. ???Men want woman to deceive them because it??™ll prove their worst thoughts about women…??? Julie also presents another ideal of love; and that is love for drugs. ???Some people can??™t imagine life without love, well I can??™t imagine life without drugs??? this presents the idea that love isn??™t just about two people it can be expressed in any shape or form.
As Cherry expresses her love through food. She continuously shoves food down Lewis??™ to show she cares; as her family brings her cupcakes she associates them as a token of their love. Cherry believes Lewis needs more loving as she expresses ???you??™re too skinny Lewis.???
Through the theme of madness Louis Nowra explores how ???normal??™ people treat the patients and how the patients see themselves. The setting of the ???burnt out theatre??? Nowra suggests that society does not place any value on the mentally ill and shows that society does not spend any resources on the mentally ill.
Nowra characterises both Nick and Lucy to behave in an arrogant and insensitive way towards the patients. Lucy??™s disregard for the patients is shown through the dialogue ???working with these people has changed you.??? When Nick sings ???they???re coming to take me away ha ha, to the funny farm…??? Lewis actions speak louder than words of his treatment of the patients as ???He punches Nick to the floor??™.
Justin??™s early impersonal and pretentious comments show his lack of understanding with the patients. ???They are normal people who have done extraordinary things, thought extraordinary thoughts.??? As Justin refers to the patients as ???them??? it shows how little he really cares.
Though unlike the ???normal??™ people (also could be known as the outsiders) Nowra gives the patients the ability to talk to each other with a freedom that isn??™t possible for the outsiders. Nowra frequently uses the characters of the patients to bring up risky subjects like lobotomies, shock treatment, drugs and sex. Dialogue such as ???Do it yourself lobotomy???, ???typical junkie, needs stimulus all the time…??? and ???want a root??? give the chance for Louis Nowra to express brutal honesty about these subjects.
Through the use of exploration of characters view and opinions, setting, dialogue and the unique contrasts of characters; we are able to grasp the themes that Louis Nowra wishes us to explore. Such as the differing views and definitions of love, the treatment and understanding of mental patients and the ability of the mentally ill to break typical social behaviour.

How to Train a Puppy

Puppy class one!When he gets excited and starts jumping up give him a strong sniff of lavender oil. It??™s therapeutic and should make him drowsy enough to calm down.When the doorbell goes, do not immediately rush up to answer it, take your time, get some nice treats for your dog, try very calmly to get her away from the door by offering her the treats. If she seems interested in the treats (they have to be irresistible to her!) you can throw them out at random over a floor in a room away from where the guests will come in.
It is important that she doesnt get any backup for her excited behaviour by having her pack (you, her family) rush to the door every time she barks or starts revving up. You should be very calm and not make a big fuss over any guests coming through your door.
Ask your guests (maybe you can put a note on the door) to ignore your dog when they come through the door. I know that can be difficult to do when she is jumping up and nipping them, but ask them to do their best. Once they have walked around in your home for a while (letting your dog collect herself) and they settle down on your sofa, make sure they have a treat in their hand and ask them to tell your dog to sit down in front of them. Once your dog sits down, she should get the treat. These exercises are meant to calm your dog down and to teach her that she will get rewards when she is calm and sitting down, rather than when she is jumping and biting


Qantas??? Qantas is the 11th largest airline in the world.
??? Qantas is the world??™s 2nd oldest airline, & the oldest airline in the English speaking world.Business management and changeOver the next 3 years Qantas has big plans to grow and to keep the airline successful, the key features include:??? Investing heavily in new technology to improve its efficiency. Qantas aims to use a 10 year plan and spend $13 billion on new aircrafts to modernise its fleet.
??? Expand its travel, catering and fright divisions to protect it from the peaks of its core airline business
??? Seek mutual beneficial partnerships with other quality airlines
??? Segment its flying business to align costs and revenue in particular markets.
??? An expansion of many of its terminals. Already Qantas has announced a $100 million expansion of its domestic terminal in Sydney.
??? Raising of equity find to help fund it??™s spending. Although Qantas??™s business plan faces several threats:
??? Enterprise bargaining agreements with more that 80% of its workforce
??? A court case instigated by the Australian Competition and Consumer Commission (ACCC) over alleged predatory pricing.
??? The possibility of a third domestic airline. Qantas had a classical scientific management structure with cultural characteristics as Hierarchical management structure which was Multi-layered, A long chain of command, specialisation and departmentalisation, autocratic management style and a lack of financial accountabilityThe domestic airline industry was deregulated in 1991, with the removal of regulations over price controls and entry into the industry. In 1995 Qantas was privatised.
These changes had impacts on the management of Qantas:
??? Qantas had to become more competitive efficient and profitable
??? Qantas had to now pay taxes and levies paid by other business in Australia
??? Qantas had to make profit and pay dividends to shareholdersAs a result they had to change there management practices and currently exhibits elements of modern management theories such as behavioural, political, contingency and systems, with a greater emphasis on human recourses. Some of the changes included:
??? A flatter management structure
??? Increased flexibility and communication with management
??? Introduction of professional management standards
??? Restructuring of job classifications and salaries
??? An emphasis on multi skilling
??? Increased levels of training for staff
??? Putting middle managers & executives on performance based employment contracts
??? Introduction of an employee share program
??? Introduction of new technology
??? Reduction of operational costs through greater business efficiency
??? The development and implementation of new products
The outcome of these changes was a more productive and efficient management structure, which enabled the management team at Qantas to deal with changes both internal and external more effectively.External influence
??? Economic The last three tears have been unkind to the global aviation industry, the terrorist attacks on new York in 2001, the outbreak of the SARS virus in Asia an 2003 and week global economic conditions has lead to a sharp decrease is demand for air travel ??“ although despite these enormous challenges, Qantas overcame them and is still maintaining its dominance over the Domestic airline market. Qantas received a record net profile of $648.4 million in 03-04, up a staggering 88 percent on 02-03??™s net profit of 333.7 million. Although the company??™s revenue fell slightly from 11.37 to 11.35 billion, mainly due to the increase in the Australian dollar which reduced Qantas income from overseas ticket sales. Rising oil prices has imposed new costs has imposed more costs on Australian business, while the rising Australian dollar has seen exports become less competitive in foreign markets.Economic influences that also affect Qantas would be: – Changes in foreign exchange rates. Qantas receives almost half its revenue in foreign currencies. Qantas??™s contracts to purchase its new fleet, lease payments, fuel purchases have to be paid in $US dollars.
– Purchases and sales of property, plant and equipment denominated in a foreign currency such as the purchase of new aircraft are hedged using a combination of forward cover and options.
– Qantas minimises the impact of fuel price rises on its bottom line through a fuel hedging systems using options and swaps.
– Qantas minimises its credit risk (default risk) by restricting its dealings to parties that have acceptable credit ratings and undertaking transactions with a large number of customers in various countries (risk spreading).
– Changes in interest rates. About 70-80% of Qantas??™ debt finance is borrowed offshore.
– Qantas takes out insurance to protect itself against various risks in operating a global airline.??? Legal and politic influences- Any changes to labour laws in Australia could increase operating costs as a result of higher wages. Disagreements may lead to strike action causing disruption to Qantas services.- Qantas is subject to the regulatory control of the Civil Aviation Safety Authority (an Australian statutory body) and is required to hold air operating licences. Any decision by the authority to not certify aircrafts or operators or to revoke Qantas??™s licence or group any of ots planes could have a devastation effect on the company??™s operations.- Qantas is affected by local laws and regulations such as contracts, dispute resolution and intellectual property in the 33 different countries in which it operates. There are also different local laws controlling airports and airspace e.g. bans on smoking, customs, security and airport noise regulations.- Qantas has been served with a number of writs alleging passengers suffered Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT) on Qantas international flights. – Qantas has to compete against international airlines which receive bureaucratic and financial assistance from their governments. In the Asia Pacific region 65% of the Association of Asia Pacific Airlines retain some level of government ownership. This distorts the market and makes it harder for Qantas to compete.- In most countries government permission is required to serve individual routes. Protection affects Qantas as governments protect the route rights of domestic airlines. E.g. Qantas can fly passenger from Sydney to Tokyo and from Sydney to Osaka, but it cannot board passengers in Tokyo and fly them to Osaka.- Australia has recently opened up its domestic markets to foreign owned airlines. On September 16, 2002 the Federal Government announced that Indonesian Airlines would be allowed to fly into international regional airports such as Cairns, under new air service arrangements. Few other nations are allowing this type of access to foreign airlines. – The political situation and environment in countries where Qantas operates can have a significant impact. September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks in the US reduced demand for Qantas??™s international flights significantly. Qantas initially reduced its international flying capacity by 1%. After the Bali bombing in October 2002 Qantas redirected capacity from some of its Indonesian services because many customers who had booked holidays to Bali were now changing to destinations such as Fiji and Queensland.- On August 13, 2002 the Howard government refused to lift Qantas??™s foreign ownership restrictions of 49% limiting Qantas??™s access to capital.- The ACCC, a government body, regulates Qantas??™s market power in Australia and has denied its approval for Qantas??™s acquisition of 22.5% of Air New Zealand.??? Technological influence – Newer planes are more efficient
– In-Flight entertainment systems and seating make the flights more comfortable and therefore more enjoyable for the customer.??? Social influencesQantas operates in 33 different countries. To overcome differences in culture and language Qantas:
– Employs host country nationals as one of its HR management policies
– Qantas employs flight attendants who can speak Asian languages and they undergo training to learn about other cultures.
– Entertainment and announcements on flights are also there to accommodate the different languages of customers.
– Differences in tastes and preferences are overcome by offering passengers choices between Western style meals, Japanese, Chinese meals complimented with Australian wines and spirits.Internal influences??? Effects of accelerating technology
Qantas uses technology to gain a competitive advantage. Technology such as:- The launch of the new SMS service Qantas uses to notify its customers of flight changes and helps business travellers manage there time efficiently when travelling.
– A $300 million Total entertainment in-flight system is being installed progressively on Qantas??™s international fleet, it incudes personal telephones, video games and 16 audio channels.
– $10 million being spent on new ???state of the art??™ passenger screening equipment, including e-ray machines, walk through metal detectors and explosive detection equipment, designed to reduce potential risk of terrorist attacks and hijackings.??? E-Commerce and new systems and procedures
– More that 20% of Qantas??™s booking are made on the internet
– Thy are constantly updating there web site and have set up a new foreign language web site.Structural responses to change ??? Outsourcing
Qantas has recently looked to outsourcing to become more cost effective and simplify the business. Some outsourcing Qantas has done or intents to do includes:- Spending 14 million sending seven of its Boeing 767 fleet to Singapore for maintenance.
– Qantas also plans to outsource some of its high technology functions, such a desktop programs to Telstra in a $150 million deal and the company-wide information system to be outsourced to IBM under a $200 million 10 year deal.Reasons for resistance to change??? Financial costs
Financial costs Qantas would anticipate in a change to the business would include: purchasing new equipment, possible redundancy payments, re-training staff and re-organising the plant layout.
– A change in external forces such as the terrorist attacks on New York, led to the need for outsourcing where 220 managers where retrenched. Far less than what would have been, if Ansett had not collapsed.
– A significant change in Qantas would mean the need to re-train staff new skills, especially when new technology is introduced
– As Qantas acquires new air craft it has to constantly re-organise the layout of its maintenance operations in order to keep them efficient/??? Inertia of Managers and Owners
– An unenthusiastic response from managers and owners/shareholders??? Cultural incompatibility in mergers
– 1n 1997 Qantas sold a 19.9% share in Air New Zealand out of frustration. Due to its inability to gain benefits due to culture clashes & the hostility of board members.
??? Staffing
– Staff considerations are another reason for resistance to change. Satff are fearfull of change as they think it might affect there job out security.
– Some staff have found there skill is no longer required due to changes in work methods.
– Qantas has specialised training to reduce staff resistance Qantas has successfully managed change through a combination of factors:??? The pressure to change
??? Having a clear vision and communicating this through op managers
??? Available resources to implement change
??? Employees give the opportunity to implement change immediately
??? Senior managers set the standard EG ??“ Dixon forfeited a $500 000, personal bonus on 02 in sympathy with the workers he asked the accept an 18 moth wage freeze
??? Change has been re-enforced
??? Change has constantly been evaluated and improvedEmployment relations Employment relations involve industrial relations, which are basic issues between employees and managers, such as wage levels and working conditions.
Industrial conflict has been a part of Qantas??™s employment relation. One such example was the on going dispute between Qantas and its maintenance workers. The cause if the dispute was the proposed wage freeze by Qantas, in return for a sliding scale profit share scheme, where the more the company make the more the employee receives in a lump some at the end of the year. 10 out of 12 unions agreed. Although two unions did not agree as they wanted an upfront payment.
Over 600 employees took action to demonstrate there anger. Action included
– Stop work meetings ??“ where employees stoped work to discuss future action
– Strikes ??“ where employees of Qantas withdrew there labour
– Work banns ??“ where employees refused to work over time
– Picket lines ??“ which were held at Melbourne airport and disrupted passenger movent. Overt and action was used by Qantas when it stood down 400 employees for failing to work overtime and covert action was also used when Qantas excluded unions from decision making. Eventually after going to the AIRC, the dipute was resolved ??“ 10 moths later. The two unions agreed to an across the board pay rise of 6% and an initial lunp sum payment of 1.5%
Financial management Financial management refers to managing financial resources of a business effectively and efficiently.

Liquidity is the capacity of a firm to meet its short term obligations. Liquidity ratio is:Current Ratio = Current assets = 2.768 = 2.768:1
Current liabilities Solvency is the ability of a business to pay its short and long term liabilities. Solvency ratios are:Debt to Equity Ratio = Total Liabilities (debt) = 2.2 = 2.2:1
Owners Equity (Equity)Debt to Assets Ratio = Total Liabilities (debt) = 2.2 = 2.2:1
Total Assets Profitability is maximising the greatest positive difference between total revenues and total expenditures. Profitability ratios are:Net profit Ratio = Net profit X 100= = 60%
Sales 1Gross profit Ratio = Gross profit X 100= = 60%
Sales 1Return on owner??™s equity is about business maximising its returns to the owners or shareholders of a business. The return on owner??™s equity ratio is:Return on owners equity ratio = Net profit . X 100= = 26%
Owners Equity 1Efficiency Ratio??™s are:Expense ratio: = Expenses X 100= = 60%
Sales 1Accounts Receivable Turnover Ratio: = Credit sales . X 100= = 60%
Average Accounts 1
MarketingMarketing refers to the planning and modification of different product areas within a business (price, place, promotion and product), with the aim of maximising the business success. ??? Market Research
– The process of gathering and analysing information which helps an organization to make business decisions and develop a business plan.
– Market Research is conducted using primary and secondary data. For Qantas primary data includes surveys of passengers in flight, mail based surveys, complaint monitoring and discussions with customer contact staff and cabin crew. Secondary data incudes government statistics, airline magazines etc??? Situational Analysis/SWOTStrengths
– Extensive network/part One World alliance
– 80% domestic market share
– New technology improving efficiency
– Globally recognised name and logo
– Excellent safety record
– One of few profitable airlines in the world
– Operational excellence: won the Cumberbatch trophy for excellence twice ??“ no other airline has done this.

– Speculation that British Airways will quit its 1.3 billion stake in Qantas
– Higher labour & other operating costs than some competitors
– Government refusal to lift foreign ownership restrictions has reduced access to funds to finance fleet expansion. Opportunities
– for its new ???No frills??™ airline ???Jetstar??™
– Taking advantage of the Ansett collapse by expanding into new routs, hiring new staff and purchasing and leasing new air crafts
– Developing gurthur E-commerce Operations
– Expanding its travel, cvatering and freight devision.
– –
– Competition from other airlines: Air new Zealand (international) and Virgin Blue(domestic)
– Threat of further competition in the domestic market
– Increased domestic government regulations
– War in Iraq witch could see oil prices rise and international travel fall.
– Falls in the Australian dollar- ??? Marketing objectives
– Main objective is to make profit, currently and in the long run
– The provide a satisfactory return to shareholders
– Increasing marketing share in the airline industry
– Increase customer service
– Growth of the company, gaining new routes
– Decrease operational costs especially labour costs??? Market strategies
Market segmentation and selection of a target market- Market segmentation allows Qantas to better meet the needs of its customers
– Better tune the marketing mix to individually segmented groups

Positioning is the image Qantas projects in relation to its competitors: positioning strategies uses u Qantas are:
– Positioning in relation to competition EG ??“ matching prices
– By positioning in relation to target market EG ??“ Qantas concentrated on capturing the lucrative corporate market through its City Flyer express service, lounge upgrades, frequent flyer service etc
– By Re-positioning i.e. Jetstar the new ???No-Frills??™ airlineFormulating the marketing mix
– Product: as the airline industry becomes more and more competitive, airlines like Qantas focus on a product plan.
– A product plan is when Qantas designs a product to appeal to a particular customer from a particular market segment.
– Price: Price is the critical element of a marketing plan. It is the variable that can be changed as quickly and as often as required.
– Price methods used by Qantas include: Cost plus margin: determining a cost of a product and adding a margin, Market: most fairs at Qantas are determined by the market were demand is matched with supply , Competition based prices: watching what other airlines are doingSince the collapse of Ansett, Qantas??™s domestic flights have been influenced by a lack of competition; they are not forced down by competition as they were in 2001 when there was an ansett and impulse airline. Although now they face further pressure from Virgin blue.- Promotion: Promotion is the means at which a organization communicates its product and its image to the consumer
– Qantas uses advertising on television, radio, magazines, newspapers, brochures, posters in travel agents and billboards (a permanent one above Qantas Drive)
– Qantas also relies on word- of-mouth
– Publicity is another important factor: this is to enhance the image of Qantas. Publicity includes press conferences and interviews, feature articles, and news releases. Sponsoring is also good advertising. Qantas sponsored a number of key events such as NRL, the grand Prix for motor bikes and most recent the 2004 Athens Olympics.

– Place: the product must be easy to interface and access, otherwise no mater how good the product or how cheap its price , selling will always be constrained. Distribution is achieved both directly an indirectly.
Direct distribution is via its own retail outlets ???Qantas holidays ??“ the largest travel wholesaler in Australia??™
– Also Telephone sales centres
– Airport ticket sales
– The internet (20% of domestic flights are sold on line) ??“ saving Qantas as much as $30 a seat from call centres and travel agent fees
Indirectly: through trave agents who are responsible for almost 80% of Qantas??™s ticket sales. Qantas has a number of a agreements with major travel agents, including Harvey world travel , jet set and flight centre. Implementing, monitoring and controlling the marketing plan.Implementation is the process of turning the plan into action. Unforseen events may occur along the way, although is constant monitoring and controlling of the marketing plan to ensure this does not occur. To adjust the marketing activities the marketing department of Qantas uses the following tools
– Developing a financial forecast of revenue using statistical models, past data, executive judgment and consumer buying intentions. Then the costs of market research, promotion, production development costs and distributions costs are all estimated.
– Comparing actual and planed results. Although because of Qantas recent success ??“ increased market share from 54 to 84 % : flying capacity of 95% : and increased profitability. Qantas is unlikely to change its strategies until the market slows down.??? Ethical and legal aspects
– Qantas is aimed at producing environmentally responsible products.
– They introduced boxed meals onto domestic flights, boxes substantially reduce waste by about 250 tonnes every month because they can be recycled, garbage that would have otherwise gone into landfills.
– Lighting and air con improvements have been made also, with the use of solar energy reducing green house gasses by almost 10,000 tonnes a year. Global business

Qantas is the 11th largest airline in the world, the network has expanded to 142 destinations in 32 countries in Asia and the Pacific, the Americas, the UK, Europe and Southern Africa. More than 75% of Qantas??™ assets are geared to the international market. Method of International Expansion – FDIQantas??™ method of international expansion is foreign direct investment.
Qantas in the past has used an acquisition strategy of airlines already operating in the foreign country. E.g. Qantas has bought stakes in Malayan Airways, Fiji??™s Air Pacific, Australia ??“ Asia Airlines and Air New Zealand (later resold). Qantas is currently trying to buy 2.5% of Air New Zealand.- Recently, Qantas has expanded through forging international alliances. Qantas entered into a comprehensive global alliance with partner British Airways in 1993. In 1999, it joined the most global of the world??™s leading airlines. Qantas gains marketing benefits such as, linking of frequent flyer programs, smoother transfers and access to lounges. Qantas also obtains benefits on the cost side. Operational and cost efficiently gains are achieved through economies of scale from terminal utilisation to aircraft purchases and saving achieved through joint purchasing of fuel, catering, ground handling and engineering.- Qantas has also commenced code sharing arrangements with other airlines. Code sharing refers to the situation where an airline offers seats on a particular route without necessarily operating on it. This is usually done by purchasing a block of seats from another airline.- Qantas has a new low frills airline Australian Airlines which started in October 2002. The network includes seven Asian ports ??“ Qantas achieves cost savings through internet ticketing, maintenance saving because only one type of airplane is used, more flexible labour conditions and outsourcing other functions. Qantas launched its New Zealand subsidiary Jet Connect in September 2003 replacing some existing Qantas services.
Qantas standardises most elements of the marketing mix such as product design, brand name, packaging, distribution and product positioning. Most of these marketing strategies are alliance based. Qantas uses the same brand and logo globally, believing it gives instant recognition and reduces its packaging, design and advertising production costs.
Qantas uses a differentiated approach with its new airline Australian Airlines ??“ adopt a more sensitive cultural approach, low cost airline, internet bookings only etc.Employment Relations
Given the importance of Qantas??™s reputation, employment relations are critical. Because most customers have direct contact with numerous Qantas employees especially on the ground (ticketing, check-in, baggage handling), appropriate management of employment relations is important for ensuring that a skilled and motivated workforce is attracted and retained.
Qantas adopts a polycentric approach to staffing. They generally hire host-country nationals (HCN??™s) instead of transferring their domestic staff to work in management positions in their foreign operations. Decision making is still relatively centralised in Australia.
Employing a global workforce is challenging because of differences in culture, levels of economic development and legal systems.Operations
Qantas uses backward vertical integration, setting up its own subsidiaries to source inputs such as catering. Qantas uses forward vertical integration setting up its own subsidiaries to distribute its outputs through Qantas Holidays and the Qantas??™s internet site.
Qantas makes the bulk of its service into and out of Australia; however, it also ???buy??? seats from other airlines to sell to Qantas customers called code sharing. The extension of this ???buy??? strategy is the setting up of a global web of suppliers. Qantas does this through its membership of the One World Alliance.
Qantas also buys other materials through outsourcing some of its maintenance and information technology functions.Jet star
Domestically, Qantas has been the clear winner from the collapse of Ansett in 2001. Qantas managed to expand its market share from 56% to 80% of the market share ??“ growing 7 years over night. In June 04 Qantas launched its new low-cost subsidiary, Jetstar, to compete with virgin blue in the discount section of the Australian airline market. Jetstar is a ???No-Frills??™ airline that offers customers low fares, yet no creature comforts. Passengers receive no food, little leg room and seats are not allocated. The entry of jet star in to the Australian domestic market indicates the willingness of the Qantas management team to adapt to changing business conditions, although there are some concerns. Few large airlines have launched a subsidiary and succeeded, with British airways ??“ one of Qantas??™s strategic partners ??“ attaining an expensive failure in the market in the 90??™s. Anther concern is that it is still unclear whether the opening of jet start will increase Qantas??™s market share, or merely take away already existing Qantas customers.
The opening up of Jetstar also shows that the Qantas management team is concerned about Virgin blue??™s rising market share. In 2003 Qantas??™s market share dropped from 69.4% to 66.2% and evidence suggest there has been a further drop in 2004.

How to Throw a Great Party

Being social should be a priority in everyones life. It keeps things interesting and keeps you excited with something to look forward to. Parties can be a time to expand your social network, meet your new guy, get dress up in your fancy clothes, put your heels on, or even show off your creative side. And whats better then being the hostess of the most faboulous parties in town.if you want everyone checking their mailboxes for your next inviation, scavenging the mall on a hunt for their next party outfit, checking off the dates on their calender till your party, their are a few rules you must follow. But theres one thing that people dont understand when throwing a party. the more money u spend doesnt garentee a better party. u can keep your coasts low and still have an fab party. so its true everyones being affected by the recission today dont let that affect ur social life. you can have your cake and eat it too.
so follow these rules for throwing a fab party on a budgetdetermine a budget for the party. and make sure everything fits around your price range. It could be $10 or $1,000, but the main idea is to limit your spending. Write down everything you think youll need for the party and an estimate of the coasts. Make sure you stay in that frame. This helps you become more aware of what funds are going where. there are three area where money usually gets spent, decorations, food, and entertainment.decorations fit your decortations around your partys theme.Keep in mind that not everything needs to be purchased for this party. Be smart find a simple house hold item that you may be able to loan from a neighbor, or purchase at a thrift store for next to nothing. Such as extra chairs or tables, this will have the same effect as brand new items. anything you do need to purcashe should be purchased from the dollar store. live at the dollar store, you can find anything you need there, from plastic utensils, streamers,ballons, birthday hats, snacks, and candels.you dont need to go to a fancy party city store to make your party look great.
you dont need a reason to throw a party, but find one. wether its a holiday, special occasion, a baby shower, engagment or birthday. that way you can pick a theme to revolve around your fab party. it can be a simple color theme or a masquirde ball. but this will allow things to be more exciting and allow you to be creative.
. Put your Imagination to use. Invite a few friends over to help make decorations and invitations. A little creativity can go a long way, and always seem to make something appear more heartfelt. Check the internet for craft ideas for centerpieces and decorations. You do not have to have every thing your heart desires for your party. Dont be afraid to be original.
. everyones always looking forward to the food. you want to be able to feed your friends who skipped out on dinner, and still keep the others intrested in snacking. Dinner doesnt have to be served, you can always just put out a few side dishes of chips and pretzels. if you decide that dinner is what you want to serve becareful. it can get pricey even if you stick to pizza. dont be shy to make it a pot luck party. everyone will get excited to be involved and bring their best dish. So assign a dish to anyone who is willing to help out. then when it comes to dessert dont go buy a big cake that half the party wont eat. make your own foundue fountain, chop up a bunch of fruits, one banana will go along way.
. entertainment is important when youre throwing a party, but when your funds are limited this can be a challnge. music is the best source of entertainment, everyone will hear their song and get up to dance. But DJs and live bands are way too expensive. An great alternitave for music is an ipod, mix cd, or even the radio these options will do the trick. This way everyone can be the dj, and everyone will get a chance to pick a song they want to hear.
. .
. when looking for a venue, try your best to make your home work. clear out all the furniture if thats going to save you money.most importantly your guest list. who can party with who. are you inviting everyone youve ever met and their cousins or are you keeping it close knit, with just your friends. so sit down and decided on the maxium number of guest youd like to invite and which crowds.
. you dont need to go into debt for this party. this tricks and creative ideas will allow you and your guests to have a great night and you wont have to take out a loan.

How to Take Care of Your Bofy

???HOW DO I TAKE CARE OF MY BODY [AND OTHER??™S BODY]???Taking care of your body is very important because it shows that you love yourself regardless of faults and flaws. Personal hygiene is very important because no-one likes to be close to a person who stinks and is dirty. Keeping your body clean is an important part of keeping you healthy and helping you to feel good about yourself. Caring about the way you look is important to your self esteem (what you think about yourself). By the way, you dont need to wear the latest designer clothing to look good. There are other things you can do which are much more important for your “image”. A. Personal hygiene: Taking care of your body physically
Smelling clean
* Have you ever walked into a classroom full of kids when all the windows are closed
* According to the experts we may sweat but we dont start having body odour (BO) until we reach puberty. Thats when special sweat glands under the arms and around the genitals roar into full production pouring out sweat which smells!
* Even if youre not heavily into puberty style sweating, clothes can get stained, dirty and generally grubby, so you need to change them often.
* Underclothes are right next to your skin and collect dead skin cells, sweat and possibly other unmentionable stains. Overnight bacteria start to work on these stains so your clothes do not smell as nice on the second day of wearing.
* Stay away from cigarette smoke as the smell will get into your clothes and hair.
* If you have to wear a school uniform then take it off as soon as you get home and hang it up to air before you wear it the next day.
* Ask your family not to smoke in the house or the car. Besides being unhealthy for them and you, the smoke clings to your clothes and makes them smelly. Of course, you wouldnt smoke either, would you
* Change underclothes often.
* You spend a lot of time on your feet and your shoes are very close to the place where a very large collection of sweat glands live – your feet!
* Sweat gets into your shoes and then bacteria arrive which love the moist leather or fabric so much that they tell all their friends to come round and party!
* If you have one pair of shoes for school then try to get them off as soon as you get home so that they can air and dry out overnight. (As you get older somewhere outside the house is a good place!) * If you have more than one pair then use them on alternate days to give them a better chance of drying out. * Keep your shoes clean by brushing, polishing or washing. They will look better, last longer and be less likely to smell. Feet
* Wash your feet well at least once a day.
* Dry them carefully, especially between the toes. If the towel is too thick to get in between your little toes, then use a dry face washer (keep it for your feet only).
* If you go swimming a lot or use public showers, you need to be particularly careful to wash your feet and dry them well. It is a good idea to wear thongs on your feet too. Lots of other people walk in bare feet in these places and you can easily pick up fungal infections or other problems for your feet, such as warts!
Using smell nice products
* If you are a teen or an adult, you may want, or feel you need, to start using a deodorant or anti-perspirant under your armpits. Be aware that some people have problems with perfumes, which can be a trigger for asthma or hay fever, so dont spray them around in the washroom or change-room.
* Remember: nothing smells better than clean skin. Perfumes are not a good substitute for a shower or wash.
* You may want to use special innersoles in your shoes, which can be taken out and washed, making the shoes smell less.
* You may want to use foot powder on your feet and inside your shoes. This can help too.
* Most sneakers or running shoes will survive being washed by hand or even in the washing machine.
* The hair follicles [which the hair grows from] produce oil which keeps the hair smooth. You also have sweat glands in your scalp, and dead skin cells come off the scalp. The oil, sweat and dead cells all add together and can make hair greasy and look dirty unless you wash it regularly.
* To keep your hair clean:
* wash regularly with shampoo (cheap ones are often as good as very expensive ones) * massage your scalp well. This will remove dead skin cells, excess oil and dirt. * rinse well with clear water * conditioner is helpful if you have longer hair as it makes the hair smoother and easier to comb, but hair doesnt need to have conditioner * use a wide toothed comb for wet hair as it is easier to pull through. Teeth
* You should brush your teeth twice a day – after breakfast and before you go to bed. * During the day, fill your mouth with water and swish it around to get rid of anything sticking to your teeth. B. Taking Care of Our Emotional Health
Emotional health generally refers to feelings and moods ??“ you may feel sad, happy, worried, excited, frustrated, and fulfilled all in the same day. Like physical well-being, emotional (psychological) health is more than the absence of problems or illness.
We know that to succeed in the world we must have inner discipline and a sense of control in our lives. This doesn??™t mean that we can accomplish what we set out to do or that we don??™t suffer disappointments and losses along the way.
Emotional healthy individuals are in touch or control in their feelings and can acknowledge and express them. Among the characteristics of emotionally healthy persons are the following:
Determination and effort to be healthy; flexibility and adaptability to a variety of circumstances; development of a sense of meaning in and affirmation of life; an understanding that the self is not the center of the universe; compassion for others; the ability to be unselfish in serving or relating to others; increased depth and satisfaction in intimate relationships; and a sense of control over the mind and the body that enables the person to make health-enhancing choices and decisions.
Ways to improve your emotional health
If you are trying to gain control over your emotions and your life, take advantage of the resources around you. It helps to sit down quietly and sort out the stresses in your life that are disturbing you. Don??™t blame others for your problems. Instead, take a good look at your responses to daily events and see how you can make adjustments that might make a substantial difference in your life. Cultivate some strategies that will help you get through your life with fewer complications and frustrations. Above all, after reviewing your issues, communicate clearly with the important people in your life.
Here are some suggestions to prevent the stresses and strains of everyday life from adversely affecting your emotional health:
* Have a physical checkup.? Often what appears to be an emotional disorder is actually a result of a physical problem. For example, if you are chronically tired and depressed, you may be suffering from a thyroid disorder. It??™s always best to rule out other existing medical condition first.
* Exercise regularly.? Your physical well-being is the basic foundation of your mental and emotional health. Physical exercise helps lower the level of your cholesterol and triglycerides in the blood and stimulates the production of endorphins, a morphine-like chemical that helps to counteract feelings of anxiety and depression. Many women also find that exercise can help alleviate the symptoms of premenstrual syndrome (PMS). Regular exercise also will help you be more relaxed during the day and sleep better at night.
* Eat the right food.? Take plenty of fruits and vegetables, whole grains, high fiber diet, low-fat meat and fish. But it is also important to avoid food that have a strong effect on your moods and can disrupt the body??™s smooth functioning. Caffeine in coffee, tea, soft drinks, and chocolates, for example, is a stimulant that produces anxiety and interferes with sleep. And, of course, avoid too much sweets, salty foods, greasy and oily foods, smoking, drugs and excessive use of alcohol.
* Take control of your life.? It is our attitudes and response to the events and goals in life that determine our life story. Use your losses as a means of enriching your life experience and as a learning opportunity. Sometimes changing some aspect of your life, although difficult, may be the best path toward a positive mental and emotional outlook.
* Keep busy, but not too busy.? Certainly one of the ways to avoid depression is to keep active. Many people find that when they are engrossed in their work, they tend to be happier. It is important to work, plan for the future, and set goals, but it??™s vital to enjoy life??™s pleasure, too.
* Take time to relax.? Relaxation ??“ whether through meditation, yoga, or other forms of recreations ??“ is another tool you have to control your state of emotional wellbeing.
* Become socially involved.? A balanced life is one that incorporates personal and social activities equally. Friends can help in times of mental and physical distress. Trying to figure out all of your problems alone may be a fruitless task because in isolation you can lose perceptive. C. Taking Care of Our Spiritual Health
Spirituality is unique to each individual. Your ???spirit??? usually refers to the deepest part of you, the part that lets you make meaning of your world. Your spirit provides you with the revealing sense of who you are, why you are here and what your purpose for living is. It is that innermost part of you that allows you to gain strength and hope.? Spiritual wellness may not be something that you think much of, yet its impact on your life is unavoidable. The basis of spirituality is discovering a sense of meaningfulness in your life and coming to know that you have a purpose to fulfill.For some, spirituality may be equated with traditional religions such as Christianity, Hinduism or Buddhism. For others, it may mean growing in your personal relationships with others, or through being at peace with nature.
Assessing Your Spiritual Health
Where are you at in your spiritual life Take a moment to reflect??¦do you feel a sense of worth, hope, purpose, commitment or peace Do you have a positive outlook on life Or do you experience feelings of emptiness, anxiety, hopelessness, apathy or conflict These may be signs of spiritual poverty in your life and may be the reason for unhappiness or dissatisfaction.
Spirituality and Wellness
Many wellness behaviours can benefit your spiritual health. Such behaviours include feeling connected with others, feeling part of a community, volunteering, having an optimistic attitude, contributing to society and self -love/care.
Improving Your Spiritual Health
Here are some ways to help improve your spiritual health:
* Be quiet. Take time for yourself every day, even if its just before you go to sleep, or when youre driving home.
* Be open. Spiritual experiences can happen anywhere at any time.
* Practice being non-judgmental and having an open mind
* Be receptive to pain or times of sorrow. It is often in these times when we discover how spirituality can help us cope.
* Practice forgiveness
* Pray, meditate or worship
* Live joyfully
* Allow yourself to believe in things, that arent easily explainable


The play Cosi tells a tale of protagonist Lewis and his struggles with running a showing of the play Cosi Fan Tutte, with patients from a mental asylum. The characters involved in the play as well as Lewis himself experience there own battles and have there own opinions on love and the idea of free love. Cosi Fan Tutte also based on love is aims to prove women can??™t be trusted that fidelity is something they all can??™t be trusted to do. ???This Cosi condones the corruption of innocence. Women are told to be tramps. Free love. Women are not to be trusted.??™Lewis the director finds himself in a relationship with girlfriend Lucy, that itself is untrustworthy. Lewis lives with his girlfriend Lucy who is more interested in politics than love, as well as friend Nick. Towards the end of running the play Lewis is confronted with the fact that Lucy and Nick are having sex, but neither Nick or Lucy see it that way, ???No she??™s sleeping with you, we??™re having sex??™ is how both Nick and Lucy see the situation. It obvious that Lucy and Lewis have different views on the issue of love, Lucy ??“ ??? Love is an emotional indulgence for the privileged few??™. Where as Lewis describes it, as ???without love the world wouldn??™t mean much??™. This shows how even the play Cosi is disapproving of love as well as the opera itself Cosi Fan Tutte.Cosi Fan Tutte written by the famous Mozart essentially is translated to ???women are like that??™. It tells a tale of two men Ferrando and Guglielmo who express to a to a man named Don Alfonso that there fiances will be eternally faithful, with Don Alfonso placing a wager, exclaiming he can prove that all women are fickle, and that the two fiances are no exception. The plan is put into action, yet regardless of the outcome (whether the fiances were tempted or not) it is obvious from the beginning that Mozart??™s idea of love and in fact the plays idea of love is that women essentially can??™t be trusted.Along with Lucy Lewis finds himself in a love triangle with one of the patients Julie a recovering drug addict, and if you count obsessed patient Cherry who has a thing for Lewis, he??™s in some sort of Love Square. Although Cherry doesn??™t really have Cherry??™s attention at all much to her disgust, it may have something to do with the fact Cherry has been in institutions for some time and is not as ???with it??™ as Julie. Although paying little attention to Cherry and hypocritically kissing Julie whilst still with Lucy, Lewis finds himself having the hearts of 3 women to having none and finding himself alone, once the play is finished. Julie finished her time in the institution and wasn??™t keen on anything more with director Lewis. This example shows yet another scenario where the play manages to criticize any sort of love between any of the characters for that matter.Not only do Lewis, Lucy and Nick have their strong feeling about love, but the patients, and characters for the Play Cosi Fan Tutte have there own views on the issue of love. Henry for example thinks ??? Cosi condones the corruption of innocence??¦. Women are not to be trusted??™. This along with other views of the character are quite uniform except for Doug who believes in free love, but that??™s the last of his worries, he has definite issues, that obviously have manipulated his views on love, whether it??™s the fact he is a pyromaniac or the fact he has long lasting unresolved problems with his mother. Doug exclaims ??? I believe in free love, but it??™s hard to practice it in here??™.In conclusion both the play Cosi and Cosi Fan Tutte have there own passionate views on love. Whether it??™s the fact that free love is the answer or the idea that women are fickle and untrustworthy. Regardless the two are clearly unsupportive of what is seen as true love, although Lewis feels very strongly about the issue of love not even he can keep a lasting relationship, not even he manages to find love, even though he feels he originally could find it with then girlfriend Lucy. Lewis continues to use a quote from the play Cosi Fan Tutte ???Woman??™s constancy is like the Arabian Phoenix. Everyone swears it exists, but no one has seen it??™. P71

How to Success in Your Life

How to success in your life??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦..1. Work hard at being more adaptable to changes. Remember every change that comes your way gives you an opportunity to move ahead of those that wont or cant adapt to sudden change.
2. Work hard at looking for shortcuts in everything you do. Always be alert to easier, more efficient ways of doing your routine task. Can you cut out, reduce, speed-up or combine steps – without sacrificing effectiveness
3. Work hard at planning ahead as much as possible. The best chess players always think one move ahead. You should always try to do the same. Prepare yourself mentally before you act physically. This alone will help you avoid wasting time and making costly mistakes.
4. Work hard at finding working hard at working smart role models. Always be on the look-out for people who work hard at working smart. Heres a hint; theyll usually be the people who get more done in less time and with fewer resources than others.
5. Work hard at learning quickly from your mistakes and the mistakes of others. Youre smart if you can learn from your mistakes, youre intelligent if you can learn from others mistakes – but youre wise if you can do both.
6. Work hard at finding ways to wisely multitask. Whats most important about multitasking (doing 2 or more things at once) Is knowing when to multitask and when not to. Routine task should be multitasked. Detailed, risky, and dangerous projects should not be.
7. Work hard at keeping current on the latest technology related to your task. Allow technology to help you work harder at working smarter. Whatever your task, a gadget, software program or tool exist that can help you do it more efficiently.
It is my hope that these 7 tips will inspire you to think of more ways you can work hard at working smart. The benefits and satisfaction will be well worth your time and effort.


In ???Cosi???, Nowra positions us to condemn the values of a society which treats it??™s mentally ill in barbaric and condescending ways. Discuss.
Louis Nowra??™s screenplay ???Cosi??™ explores the attitudes to and perception of the mentally ill in 1971. During this period Australia is at war and undergoing social reform. The perception of mental patients in the 70s can be seen as unethical and inhumane, with society grouping them with animals and locking them away in asylums with barbaric conditions. The 70s saw mental illness being neglected and kept in the dark and with movies that depict ???mad??™ people as animals; a negative connotation is placed upon these people. Nowra attempts to shed light on the issue and change our attitude by drawing sympathy for them through his play ???Cosi??™.
Nowra aims to garner sympathy for mental patients through constructing his characters in ???Cosi??™ in a way that shows that these people are fully functional human beings. By carefully creating the personality of each character, Nowra is able to give an insight to the lives and minds of mental patients. This insight allows the audience to rethink their views on mental patients, like Roy. Roy is an exuberant character with high aspirations. We see Roy??™s enthusiasm from the beginning with him eager to begin the production. His dreams of belonging in the theatre and his high aspirations; ???aiming for the stars??™, are a far cry from the insanity and madness that society portrays the mentally ill. Roy??™s fabricated childhood stories about his mum singing Mozart to him shows his despair and agony. Roy is mentally disabled in that he wants a childhood so strongly that he creates a fictional tale. His overly enthusiasm for ???cosmic harmony??™ through Cosi fan Tutti is what makes the play work in the end. This aspiration of Roy??™s can be seen as a symbol of hope. This poises the question to the audience of why such a person, with these human like aspirations, to be placed in a mental asylum In a play where the line between insanity and sanity is so thin, we question whether some people outside the asylum, are indeed ???mad??™. The highly radical Nick openly promotes violence and he can be paralleled to Doug in the asylum, yet he is not placed in an asylum. The audience is likely to see that these people are no more different then to people outside the asylum.
The need to change our values about mental patients is strengthened through Nowra??™s depiction of the abhorrent conditions of the asylum. Through the use of symbolism Nowra is able to accurately show the audience the conditions of the asylum. In the first scene Nowra describes the theatre as ???pitch black??™ with a ???heavy door??™ only letting in a ???chink of light??™. This symbolises how mental intuitions are ignored and neglected. The dismissal state of the burnt out theatre may suggest that mental patients are incapable of using such facilities. This condescending view is reinforced by Nick and Lucy whom both wave off any thought that mental patients like Roy can perform theatre. However, their views are proved wrong and Lewis manages to direct a masterpiece. The fact that a few mental patients are able to produce such a masterpiece shows not only their mental capabilities but there determination and potential. It shows the audience that these people have the potential to achieve and their determination outweighs the criticism and condemnation of society. The journey that each character takes in the production of Cosi fan Tutti demonstrates the ???more??™ human side that society is to quick to look over.
Nowra effectively draws sympathy from the audience through the development of characters and shows how they are constantly judged and condemned. These mental patients, human people, show great strength as humans and demonstrate to the audience that they deserve a place in society; we can not treat them in barbaric and condescending ways.