Day: May 31, 2017

Cosmetics and the 5 Senses

Cosmetics and the 5 senses : Perception & Description
Agnes Giboreau [email protected] Your contact: Helene AZOEUF, Sensory Dpt Director [email protected] Tel +33 169 534 302www.adriant.com1The questions addressed today
Why controlling sensory properties in cosmeticsBiology
How does the body reply to the cosmetic worldLanguage
What kind of words are cosmetic sensory attributesDescription
How to define attributes for cosmetics descriptionConclusion2 Introduction3Why paying attention to sensory in cosmetics
Appearance of the pack Consumers are emotionally attached to their cosmetics Sensory characteristics could create an emotional link between the consumer and the product / packaging :
Optimisation of the sensory characteristics of the product / the packMaterialPerfume
Positive stimulation of one or many sensesTaste of the lipstick Sound while closingIncrease the perceived quality of the product and its emotional content
4 Why controlling sensory characteristics in cosmeticsFacing the high demand of the cosmetic industry to base the marketing mix on sensations??¦ It is necessary to know how to control sensory characteristicsSensory descriptive studies represent the most useful and the most used tool to achieve such a control.5The solution: Sensory descriptive methods
Objectives :
Measuring all sensations a product provides to a consumer at various stages of usage all along the product life Considering the link to consumer liking, sensory profile is used : For a watch on competition To know consumers??™ expectations through sensory strengths and weaknesses To define the sensory optimum profile
6 Biology
How does the body reply to the world7How defining a sense A “sense” is a faculty by which outside stimuli are perceived. SENSE (broadly acceptable definition )
“a system that consists of a sensory cell type (or group of cell types) that respond to a specific kind of physical energy, and that correspond to a defined region (or group of regions) within the brain where the signals are received and interpreted.”
(Source: Wikepedia)8 Sensory receptor
Structure that recognizes a stimulus in the internal or external environment of an organism.Smell & Taste : chemical receptors activated by interacting with the moleculeSight : Photoreceptors transducing the physical energy of light into electrical signals.Touch & Hearing : Mechanoreceptors responding to physical stimuli when membranes are physically stretched.9Sight
Certainly the most important sense as being the source of information for most instinctive action The most immediate sense The one that drives all other perceptions Appearance directly linked to symbolic interpretationAnd in cosmetics
Many visual characteristics of both consumption and liking.PACK andPRODUCT are involved in consumer choice,10 Hearing
Also a crucial sense as it is the main channel to oral communication, essential human activity Sound environment : central in human well-being Acoustic stimuli perceived from their source, their function, or a specific causal eventAnd in cosmetics
The main issue concerns the PACK: Sound produced while opening and closing ??¦ But also the hair or skinPRODUCT: hand interaction with
The third distal sense Hardly recognized by consumers and implicitly memorised Highly linked to emotion Strongly influences mood and individual judgmentAnd in cosmetics
Large role in cosmetics Reinforcement of the liking level of a given product or a given brand In luxury brands or personal care : symbolic impact sometimes as high as a visual property
12 Touch
Proximal sense, needing contact.Tact
Muscles and bonesThermal captors
Heat transfersPain sensations
Trigeminal nerveAnd in cosmetics
Major sense for cosmetics products : Graal softness, packaging handling, skin-hair-body contact, hand perception and so on.13Taste
Intimate sense In-mouth sensations Taste buds only responds to water soluble compounds, salts, acids sugars, peptides.. BUT : In the consumer mind : also refers to other sensations occurring in-mouth : aroma (through retronasal perception : strawberry, vanilla) & mouthfeel sensations.And in cosmetics
Critical for Oral care and lip sticks14 Language What kind of words are sensory attributes for cosmetics15Linguistic ressources
What linguistics resources are available to describe sensations
-Morphology (lexical form):Noun, adjective, verb or constructed form -Semantics (meaning)Focus on the object or on the subject16 Sensory adjectives
A lot specific sensory adjectives
Vision : e.g. dark, small, rough, green.. Somesthesia : e.g. heavy, tough, thick,
smooth, harsh..Less specific sensory adjectives
Taste: e.g. bitter, acid Audition: e.g. loudNo specific sensory adjectives
Smell: No specific sensory adjectives in olfaction.17Sensory nouns and verbs
Nouns :
-Exist for all sensory modalities- Can refer to different levels of conceptual elaboration of the stimulation -e.g. lemon smell, velvet touch
Nominal adjective: e.g. fruityVerbs :
-Encountered in all fields Related to the effect of stimuli on the subject = effectas well as to the impact of subject actions to produce sensations in an interactive process with the object = usage
Verbal adjectives: e.g. tingling, resistant,18 Linguistic resources for sensory cosmetics
Sight Simple adjectives ++ color, shape, size, texture ++ source, concept + light, effect Hearing + sharpness, clarity, loudness ++ source, concept + effect, sound making Smell 0 Touch ++ substance, Texture Taste +Nouns, nominal adjectives Verbs, verbal adjectives++ source, concept + effect++ source, concept + gesture, effect, usage++ source, concept + effectSemantics
– Object descriptions – Subject feelings19What is the best form for a sensory attributeIts function To provide a certain value (= quantification ) of a given quality (=property).Preferred form: Adjectives Adjectival form constructed on nouns or verbs20 Description How to define attributes for cosmetic products21What does ???trained panel??? mean
12 or 15 subjects Recruitment : Recruited on
motivation, availability, logical, scaling abilities, sensory general sensitivityTraining (10-50 hours) :
(1) General sensory knowledge (2) Attribute generation & selection (3) Attributes??™ learningOnce trained, the panel is able to measure sensory characteristics of products.
22 Training
A. Descriptors generation
Wide range of products representing the products on the market Individual work : description of the perception for each product Debriefing with all the panelists in order to group the generated descriptors.B. Training on sensory characteristics
Once the list of attributes is worked out the group goes through: – the recognition of the attributes, – the quantification of the intensity of the attributes on a structured scale
At the end of this training, the panelists are able to recognize and describe the sensations composing these products.+ Checking of the panel performances
(sensitivity, homogeneity and repeatability)C. Scaling : Test of the products
23How to select attributes
-?«discriminate non redundant relate to consumer acceptance/rejection relate to instrumental or physical measurements singular precise and reliable consensus on meaning unambiguous reference easy to obtain communicate relate to reality?»
(Source: Lawless & Heymann, 1998)24 How to write definitions
-?«be lexically homogeneous (the definition of an adjective starts with an adjective or a pronoun Avoid circularity as it brings no information (same etymological family) Favor description: analogy, paraphrases, synonyms, antonyms (explicit information, complement of the attribute) Illustrate with reference to products as a complement and specification of the definition (example)?»—(Source: Giboreau et al., 2006, Fd Qual & Pref)25Example of sensory attributes : Essenso Cosmetics
Attribute Definition Which moves easily in the cup Producing a long and thin ribbon Which does not oppose resistance to cover the skin Protocole Bend the cup to allow the product to flow and observe the product movement Press a small amount of sample between forefinger and thumb and gently separate fingers Spread a small amount of sample within a 4cm diameter area on the forearm and evaluate while applying Spread a small amount of sample within a 4cm diameter area on the forearm and evaluate the sensation after 3 rounds. Gently touch the skin with 3 fingers and remove handIn the cupFluidAt pick upThreadingEasy to spread At application GreasyWhich reminds the texture of butterSticky 2 min after application ThickThat needs strength to remove fingers Which leaves a heavy residual filmStroke the skin with the whole hand26 Sensory profile9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1Creme A Creme Bfluidefermefilantfacile a etalerfraisaqueuxgrasfacile a f. peau film penetrer collante residuel27Conclusion28 Conclusion
The 5 senses
All 5 senses are involved in cosmetic industries. The importance of each sense depends on the product type, with a large impact of usage conditions.The methods
The sensory know-how coming from Food Sciences and statistics has been successfully transferred to cosmetic areas. Psycho-linguistics know-how allowed fine tuning of descriptor lists and definitions. Current methods show good performances.The cosmetic applications
Wide range of applications from Quality control, to R&D and Marketing projects29Thank you for your attention

How to Write an Executive Summary

How to Write an Executive SummaryBy eHow Business Editor
Time to simplify that big report
An executive summary previews the main points of an in-depth report; it is written for nontechnical people who dont have time to read the main report. The executive report contains enough information for a reader to get familiarized with what is discussed in the full report without having to read it. Here is how you write an executive report.Things You Will Need: ??? Thesauri
??? Dictionaries
??? Primary source of material ??“ usually text if academic paper
Step 1:
Plan to create a summary each time you write a business report exceeding four pages. Write the summary after you write the main report, and make sure it is no more than 1/10 the length of the main report. Start the Executive Summary with a short purpose statement ??“ why you wrote the report itself, and what will be addressed in the report. Finish with a summary and/or recommendations
Step 2:
List the main points the summary will cover in the same order they appear in the main report
Step 3:
Write simple declarative sentences for each of the main points. No personal pronouns used.
Step 4:
Add supporting or explanatory sentences as needed, avoiding jargon. (know your audience)
Step 5:
Read the summary slowly and critically, making sure it conveys your purpose, message and key recommendations. You want readers to be able to skim the summary without missing the point of the main report.
Step 6:
Check for errors of style, spelling, grammar and punctuation. Ask a fellow writer to proofread and edit the document. Cite or attribute all intellectual material used ??“ no References page needed.
Step 7:
Ask a nontechnical person – for example, your parents or your spouse – to read the document. If it confuses or bores them, the summary probably will have the same effect on intended readers.

How to Write an Essay

? Referencing – it is important. If there wasnt sufficient referencing in your essays, you will have had some comments to that effect and some places where you might have put a reference will have been pointed out. Remember, someone has written their ideas down and they deserve credit for having those ideas. Note the format too, I will have given examples where appropriate.
? When making a point in this essay, it was important to link it back to the materials – it was expected. So if you write about, say, traffic signs, you can mention the same in City Road … and give the reference. That linkage is very important. In future essays, you will be linking points back to theories so its a good idea to get used to it now.
? Use the terminology. Quite a few described things that were recognisable as difference or making and remaking but didnt mention the term(s). Generally, where the terms werent used the linkage didnt show up either. Both are important.
? Be wary of going west – leaving the context of the essay and striking out to pastures new. Theres no marks there. Everything you write must be relevant to the question asked. For example, if you described items in a particular shop window, it wasnt relevant to differences and inequalities being made and remade.
? Writing to length … I was surprised at how many pieces were short. The word count is set so that a good concise writer can get in all the relevant material/ideas in the space allowed. If you write, say, 80% of the words … even if you are that good concise writer you are guaranteed to have missed something out and, thus, may have forfeited 20% of the marks before the essay even gets to me.
? Then there are those who write in a less than concise manner. If you take twice as many words to say the same thing, you will also be forfeiting quite a few marks. So keep it short; keep it relevant.
? No questions in essays – I cant stress how annoying these are. Generally speaking, the writer asks a question that effectively means “So what do I/we think of this” and goes on to tell me what they think. Its rhetoric – pointless at the best of times. But consider this … if you are asking me questions, you are not telling me anything … and if you arent telling me anything, you are not attracting marks.
? Check your work. Write it, leave it a day or so and then re-read three times, if not more. That is how to produce good work.


Cosi essayThe semi-autobiographical play cosi effectively portrays how the composer Louis nowra uses an array of symbols and themes that characters encounter throughout the play. Such as Lewis??™s transformation on his own perspective versus societies perspectives on the mentally ill throughout the play write or fidelity and infidelity symbolized through the play in a play of cosi fan tutte and compared with the Arabian phoenix. It is through these themes and symbols that Louis nowra illustrates the various challenges an individual faces in life to the audience.What would an example of a topic sentence for transformation be
Nowra uses the subject of creating a theatrical performance with an association of mental patients as the first challenge Lewis has to over come as he claims to his girlfriend Lucy that??? I am only doing this for the money???. Nowra uses this quote as a way of symbolize Lewis??™s isolation from the mental patients. As Lewis??™ transformation leads him to gradually learn to accept the mental patients his perspective helps the audience to transform their opinion on the mentally ill as well. This is done through the flickering of the fuse box, which becomes a symbol of Lewis??™s thoughts and feelings about the mentally ill are changing. In conjunction with this Lewis rhetorically asks himself ??? why cant I ever say no just leave. They are mad. Its madness??? this quote shows Lewis comparing the mentally ill who society claims to be ???mad??? to who himself noted as a ???normal??™ person in society, thinking ???mad??? thoughts. Cleverly depicting to the audience that challenges individuals face in life can cause them to feel madness and that the stereotypes mad by society are not always correct as anyone can show signs of madness. Therefore the audience comes to empathies with the mental patient for the conditions they face even though they are human beings.???Cosi fan tutte??™ meaning women are like that is a play about love and fidelity that Lewis and the mental patients are performing in cosi. By performing cosi fan tutte nowra effectively uses a binary opposite theme of fidelity and infidelity so the characters can express and explore their views and values on life??™s challenges of love to the audience. It is evident of Lewis??™s view on love through ??? love is not important nowadays???. Although his attitudes on love change throughout the play as Lucy??™s idea about ???free love??? conforms Lewis into believing that fidelity to your partner is ???important???. When Lewis discovers Lucy??™s betrayal, she waves aside his shock, defending that ???it is not as if we??™re married.??™ The revelation does indeed prove that Cosi Fan Tutte is correct in stating that, ???woman??™s constancy is like the Arabian Phoenix. Everyone swears it exists, but no one has seen it.??? Although the women in both Cosi Fan Tutte and Cosi are shown to be unfaithful, so are the men. While the men in Cosi Fan Tutte do not actively participate in adultery, they do fabricate their departure to the war and also disguise themselves as ???Albanians.??™ Their deception is also a betrayal to their wives. Meanwhile, Don Alfonso manipulates everyone. As seen in Cosi, Lewis is unfaithful to Lucy as he kisses Julie during rehearsals. Julie later reveals that she has a girlfriend who she would prefer to be with, confirming that both men and women are unfaithful in relationships. How can I refer this back to the audience What would their response be to thisNowra proposes the idea that ???madness??™ is not always a simple psychological or psychiatric diagnosis, but is sometimes a matter of perspective and judgment. It embodies a wholistic view of human behaviour rather than an attitude of diagnostics and labeling. Nowra uses the imagery of light and dark to show that the chaos associated with the confusion of sanity and insanity can be both frightening and liberating and control can sometimes be repressive. Light traditionally represents hope and clarity, in the opening scene ???it is pitch black inside the theater. A heavy door opens??¦ a chink of daylight enters??? suggest that Lewis is a symbolism of hope and sanity within the group. Opposed to this the chaos and confusion that erupts when the lights go out. However it is evident that this madness can be liberating at times as Julie and Lewis discover when they kiss ???passionately??™ in the darkness although they both have partners already. Nowra also creates characters that cross the boundaries between the contrasting ideas of sanity and insanity to highlight inconstancies in the mental health system. For example Lewis is shown to be ???crossing the line??™ as he stands by the patients and sides with cherry, although Doug started the fire ???im sorry??¦ it wont happen again??? or when he replaces Doug in the play. Other characters such as Ruth blur the line between sanity and insanity this is shown after leaving the asylum when Ruth becomes a ???time and motion expert??™ where her obsessive compulsiveness is an asset. Therefore this confusion between sanity and insanity changes the perspective of the audience in allowing them to relate to the characters in time in their lives where they have felt confusion between their own sanity and insanity.In conclusion Lewis nowra is able to depict through various themes, characters and symbols the different perspectives on the mentally ill. Further more nowra is able to generate a powerful response by changing the audiences perspective and views of challenges in life.