Day: May 28, 2017



By spending time and their experiences together Lewis and the rest of the characters have all improved themselves. This is seen through Julie, Nick and Zac from the play ???Cosi??™ written by Louis Nowra. Everyone wanted to start a fresh new life and by doing so Nick and Zac had became successful people while Julie had started her new life very well but soon passed away. Julie a character from the play ???Cosi??™ is in the Mental Institution for the first time because of a drug addiction. Julie had come to this play to do something that she had never done before, star in a play about Love and Fidelity. Now that the performance of the play is over Julie has stated that ???I??™m leaving this place???, Lewis is shocked that she is leaving and wants to take her to the station but Julie would like him to visit her before she leaves. Julie is now heading off to Sydney with her girlfriend to start a new chapter in her life, and also states that ???I need something stable in my life???. This suggest that she is ready for what??™s coming up in her future in Sydney and with her girlfriend, but later on Lewis goes to Sydney to visit her but he has just read the paper and its states ??? Julie has died on an drug overdose???. This also proves that you can change a lot of your life, but you will always end up going back to your normal self and doing the same stuff you have done in your past but doing it in your future. Nick is a character that is up himself a lot throughout the play, he is also a passionate supporter of the Communists in Vietnam and also a protester against the war. But this has given him becoming the Labour MP in the Upper House. This is also because he had organised the Moratorium meeting in Act 1. Nick hasn??™t improved his new life because he believes that Lewis is wasting his time in the asylum and also has betrayed his best mates trust but sleeping with his girlfriend Lucy, and this has caused a war about directing a play and who is better at directing than the other. So now Nick has lost a great friend and also things didn??™t work out between Lucy and himself because the both didn??™t believe in fidelity. Zac is the musician of the group, he loves to play music and throughout the play he is the right person who plays the piano in the performance. Right after the performance Zac has pressure his musical talent in a rock and roll band. They had a hit but them he had changed his career and started a Polka band in Melbourne; this was very big in the Melbourne German and Austrian clubs. He was the only character that has a great career out of the Melbourne Mental Institution, he has succeeded in changing his life around and also starting fresh even though he is still in Melbourne. The characters of ???Cosi??™ have changed a little bit of their lives through the spending of time with each other and their learning new experiences from the play they have performed together.

How to Treat Deep Overbites

DEEP OVERBITES: AETIOLOGY AND MANAGEMENTDefinitionThe incisor overbite (OB) is the vertical relationship of anterior teeth, and it describes the degree of overlap of these teeth. Normal overbite = upper incisors cover between 1/3 to ? of labial aspect of the lower incisors when viewed horizontally from the front.Deep overbite = Overlap of more than ? of the lower incisor crownsDeep OB can be present in any of the main categories of malocclusion; but is one of the main features of Class II Division 2 malocclusion.Incisors erupt towards their full potential and they tend to do so until they meet some form of hard or soft tissue resistance.AETIOLOGYDeep overbites result from a combination of genetic, environmental and local factors. Although they may be considered separately, many of them are interdependent. SKELETAL FACTORSVertical Relationship??? Decreased lower facial height
??? Low maxillary-mandibular planes angle
??? Shape of the mandible
??? Forward growth rotation of the mandible (orientates lower incisors more lingually)
??? Downward rotation of the mandibleAntero-posterior Relationship
??? Marked AP discrepancy = excessive overjet (could also be reverse OJ)
??? This may mean no contact between anterior teeth which continue to eruptTransverse
??? Where lower arch is very narrow (esp II Div 2s) a scissors bite situation may develop, thus producing a deepening of the bite anteriorly.SOFT TISSUE FACTORS??? Any abnormal behaviour or posture of the lips which prevenys teeth from occluding in their normal relationship may allow teeth to erupt beyond their normal level.
??? Especially a high lower lip line, covering more than just the incisal 2-3 mm of the upper incisors.
??? High circum-oral muscle activity and taut tissues
??? These factors tend to retrocline incisors
??? In II Div 1s, lower lip trap may procline the uppers, but tends to retrocline the lowers, and may contribute to a deep OBDENTOALVEOLAR FACTORSInter-incisal Angle
??? U & L incisor angles as they erupt will determine whether they occlude and achieve the ideal inter-incisal angle of around 130 degrees. Incisor Height
??? Incisors probably have a pre-determined limited potential for eruption. The direction of eruption (see above) is important; but also if nothing opposes this eruption, they continue to erupt until a deep OB develops.Dentoalveolar Compensation
??? In mild AP skeletal discrepancy cases, the upper incisors may compensate by becoming retroclined under the influence of soft tissues and function.Incisor Shape
??? The labio-lingual dimension (thickness) of upper incisors can be smaller than normal in many deep OB cases.
??? The diminution or absence of a cingulum plateau and a steep platal slope of the upper incisor crowns
??? Even if the roots are normal in inclination, sometimes a marked increased angle between the crown and the root of the upper incisorsLack of Posterior Support
??? Loss of deciduous teeth in children
??? Loss of permanent teeth due to excessive or wrong orthodontic extractions (extractions of more anterior teeth is more likely to deepen OB); or due to caries/periodontitis
??? HypodontiaTrauma
??? Lingual luxation of the upper labial segment during development
MANAGEMENTBefore any treatment you need to take a complete history and carry out thorough clinical and radiographic examinations. This will help diagnose the cause of the problem, and also assess the relative contribution of upper and lower incisors to it. The age of the patient must also be taken into consideration.INDICATIONS FOR TREATMENT
??? Poor appearance of teeth
??? Trauma or potential trauma to teeth and soft tissues
??? Poor functionAIMS
??? Reduction of overbite itself
??? Correction (reduction) of inter-incisal angle to 130 or even less. This is important for stability.
??? Correction of the ???edge-centroid relationship???. The lower incisor edges should ideally lie anterior to the centroids of the roots of the upper incisors. Thus further eruption is impeded and the OB stabilisedWAYS OF REDUCING OVERBITE IN GENERAL
??? Intrusion of incisors
??? Prevention of further ncisor eruption
??? Extrusion of posterior teeth
??? Encouragement of posterior growth rotation of mandible
??? Proclination of incisor crowns/ palatal root torque
??? Surgical movement of the skeletal bases
??? Any combination of the aboveMETHODS OF OVERBITE REDUCTION??? Usually non-extraction or extractions as far back as possible aids OB reduction, as you get more extrusion of posterior teeth, and less retraction of labial segments.SIMPLE REMOVABLE APPLIANCES??? Anterior biteplanes: prevention of eruption of lower incisors, possibly intrusion of lower incisors, encouragement of posterior eruption, encouragement of posterior growth rotation during growth
??? Z or T springs can procline upper incisors
??? Torquing springs can torque upper incisor roots palatallyFUNCTIONAL APPLIANCES??? Used in moderate to severe Class II skeletal growing patients
??? Separation of the posterior teeth and stretching of soft tissues promotes vertical/ posterior mandibular growth
??? Can incorporate proclining or torquing springs for incisorsFIXED APPLIANCES??? Various systems (Begg, Tip-Edge, Straight Wire, Bioprogressive, etc) have their own ways of reducing OB; but all rely on the same set of basic principles.
??? In most circumstances, it is desirable to over-correct the overbite reduction, and the reduction in the inter-incisal angle to ensure a more stable result.
??? In Begg treatment ???anchor bends??? of about 30 degrees are placed in front of the molar teeth; so that once the archwire is placed in molar tubes, the anterior part of the archwire lies close to the labial sulcus, and once brackets are engaged, there is an intrusive and bite opening force on the incisors.??? When reducing overbites in Bioprogressive/Segmental mechanics the molars are connected using a trans-palatal arch, anterior and posterior segments are aligned separately separately (sectional archwires), and then an additional ???utility arch??? is used to intrude the incisor teeth. The utility arch is usually made of 016×016 or 016×022 Blue Elgiloy for 018 slot systems, or 019×019 Blue Elgiloy for 022 systems. Molar anchor bends provide the intrusive force, while engagement of the archwire into the anterior (pre-adjusted) brackets intudes the upper incisors and torques their roots palatally. The posterior anchorage unit (TPA) prevents extrusion and distal tipping of the molars. TMA wire is an alternative to Blue Elgiloy. Another alternative is to keep the last sectional rectangular wire in the anterior brackets, and then ???lash??? (tie) the utility arch to the anterior segmental wire.??? With the Straightwire Appliance you tend to get an initial deepening of the overbite where distally-angulated canines are present. The incisors tend to extrude and tip forwards because the labial segment does not provide enough anchorage for the movement of the canine root. Canine lacebacks may help.
??? However, gradual progression through the sequence of AWs (from thins and flexible to thicker and stiffer) starts to reduce the overbite again. The incisors are proclined, their roots are torqued lingually/palatally, and there is also a combination of genuine and relative intrusion of the incisors too.
??? There is some extrsusion of the posterior teeth as the arches align, which is compensated by the vertical growth of the mandible and the alveolar processes (in the growing patient ??“ posterior rotation and increase in lower face height) which further reduces the overbite.
??? Including the second molars in the bond-up reinforces vertical anchorage, and helps flatten the Curve of Spee (COS).
??? Placing a reverse COS in the lower rectangular SS AW, and an accentuated COS in the the same wire for the upper arch, helps further OB reduction.
??? The use of elastics may extrude the posterior teeth further, but must make sure upper labial segment torque in maintained.
??? Bracket positioning may also help with OB reduction.MINI/ MICRO IMPALNTS??? Elastics or coils worn to anchor implants can help intrusion of incisors or extrusion of posterior teeth.ORTHOGNATHIC SURGERY
??? Used in a non-growing patient with a marked AP discrepancy.
??? Arches prepared by conventional orthodontics first
??? To allow proper anterior surgical movement of the mandible, decompensation may involve extractions to create an overjet before surgery.
??? Mandibular adnvancement corrects AP relationship.
??? A maxillary procedure may also be required to increase the vertical dimension and permit good interdigitation..
??? Segmental surgery may also be considered.STABILITY??? Over-correction
??? Appropriate mechanics
??? Permanent retention!


Noted pages: 20 – 25 44 – 48Cosi Is shapes by the decisions of significant characters. This id say is very true, Most if not all the characters had a part in shaping the play through their actions, the person that I personally think had the most Is have is the main protagonist of the play, Lewis, His actions vastly effect the direction that the play takes and not just that it also vastly effects his own perception of love and fidelity.
Lewis for starters was only doing this for the money and also hold stereotypical views (just like Nick and the rest) about mental patients. During early parts of the play Lewis has to confront some issues, for example the Fire, Lewis after this event could have easily canned the idea, collected his pay check and gone home. This was Lewiss first involuntary step on his inner journey because he chooses to lie to keep the production going. This decision is the foundation for his characters development. This not only effects him but effects everyone in the project, the patients for example in the long run the play helps and changes characters(HENRY) comes out of his shell and actually starts to talk and hold a small conversation with somebody, Not only Henry but Julie is also effected, At the end of the play she is released from the institution due to her drug obsession in the outside world subsiding, sadly this does not last and she dies in Sydney due to an overdose.
Choosing a side: Lewis in the play had to pick a side, it was The institution or Nicks moratorium, Lewis comes to see that all of the patients for all their “madness” are more worthwhile and beneficial than his friends so Lewis again stays with the play to get it finished. His inner journey leads Lewis to see that Nick is cruel, selfish and a hypocrite who calls Lewis a “mate” but is sleeping with his girlfriend behind his back. Choosing the play over the moratorium didnt sit well with nick and Lucy, they left and never returned, on the other hand this made Lewis a lot more free and able to walk his own walk and not live in Nicks shadow. Majority of the patients noticed the difference in Lewiss directing after Nick and Lucy left, they got on with the play and got it finished in time. In summary the play Cosi is undeniably shaped by its significant characters, Without Lewiss decisions the play would not even eventuate nor would the patients get the opportunity to express themselves in a play


In the play ???Cosi??™ by Louis Nowra there are many themes and issues explored. Two themes addressed are love and madness. Through characterisation, dialogue, setting and the contrast between mental patients and outsiders we are able to grasp the concept of these themes.
Louis Nowra gives many of the characters there own view about the importance of love. As the almost outsiders Lucy and Nick??™s opinions of love are quite cynical. ???Only mad people in this day and age would do a work about love and infidelity.??? Lucy believes ???love is an emotional indulgence for the privileged few.??? In contrast the patients have a much simpler view on love. As their views reflect onto Lewis as his ideas of love become important ???without love the world wouldn??™t mean much.???
Louis Nowra has characterised each patient to have their own definition of love. Doug confuses love and sex and is unable to express any real caring for anyone. He believes in free love ???make love not war, eh???
Roy??™s opinion of love is that ???love is what you feel when you don??™t have enough emotion left to hate…??? expressing that hate is a much more powerful emotion than love. ???we choose our enemies with greater care than our lovers…???
Julie believes that men expect women to behave in a certain way and, if they don??™t, men are judgemental of them. ???Men want woman to deceive them because it??™ll prove their worst thoughts about women…??? Julie also presents another ideal of love; and that is love for drugs. ???Some people can??™t imagine life without love, well I can??™t imagine life without drugs??? this presents the idea that love isn??™t just about two people it can be expressed in any shape or form.
As Cherry expresses her love through food. She continuously shoves food down Lewis??™ to show she cares; as her family brings her cupcakes she associates them as a token of their love. Cherry believes Lewis needs more loving as she expresses ???you??™re too skinny Lewis.???
Through the theme of madness Louis Nowra explores how ???normal??™ people treat the patients and how the patients see themselves. The setting of the ???burnt out theatre??? Nowra suggests that society does not place any value on the mentally ill and shows that society does not spend any resources on the mentally ill.
Nowra characterises both Nick and Lucy to behave in an arrogant and insensitive way towards the patients. Lucy??™s disregard for the patients is shown through the dialogue ???working with these people has changed you.??? When Nick sings ???they???re coming to take me away ha ha, to the funny farm…??? Lewis actions speak louder than words of his treatment of the patients as ???He punches Nick to the floor??™.
Justin??™s early impersonal and pretentious comments show his lack of understanding with the patients. ???They are normal people who have done extraordinary things, thought extraordinary thoughts.??? As Justin refers to the patients as ???them??? it shows how little he really cares.
Though unlike the ???normal??™ people (also could be known as the outsiders) Nowra gives the patients the ability to talk to each other with a freedom that isn??™t possible for the outsiders. Nowra frequently uses the characters of the patients to bring up risky subjects like lobotomies, shock treatment, drugs and sex. Dialogue such as ???Do it yourself lobotomy???, ???typical junkie, needs stimulus all the time…??? and ???want a root??? give the chance for Louis Nowra to express brutal honesty about these subjects.
Through the use of exploration of characters view and opinions, setting, dialogue and the unique contrasts of characters; we are able to grasp the themes that Louis Nowra wishes us to explore. Such as the differing views and definitions of love, the treatment and understanding of mental patients and the ability of the mentally ill to break typical social behaviour.